新航道•9分达人雅思阅读真题还原及解析2.pdf

新航道•9分达人雅思阅读真题还原及解析2.pdf
 

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《新航道•9分达人雅思阅读真题还原及解析2》优势及卖点:2012年-2006年7套最新阅读真题;与最新题库原文一字不差!与雅思真题题目一模一样!!与官方标准答案完全一致!!!

作者简介
王毅,北京新航道学校雅思阅读与口语主讲,新航道英语测试研究中心主任,雅思高分全能班的开创者,美国博代尼大学硕士,中国大陆地区迄今为止唯一雅思总分满分得主。自2002年以来一直活跃在雅思考试培训第一线,其倡导的PAVE英语教学法、雅思阅读六点论、雅思口语“万径归一”等多种培训方法为众多雅思考生所推崇。

目录
Test 1 1
Test 2 17
Test 3 29
Test 4 41
Test 5 54
Test 6 66
Test 7 77
真题解析 89
Answer Keys 176

序言
雅思满分之路
很多人经常问我雅思是怎样考到满分的,其实这个问题就像如何把英语学好一样难以回答。把雅思考到满分,正如英国剑桥大学雅思考试委员会官方所描述的那样,必须具备专家级也就是Native Speaker的英语实力。所以这里我还是谈谈我是如何学好英语的,并和大家分享一些准备雅思考试的小经验、小技巧。
第一阶段:建立标准的英语发音体系

其实最初我的英语基础非常差,因为我高中学习的是日语。进入大学以后,由于受到日语发音的影响,我的英语发音很不标准,语法也是错误百出,这让我非常焦急。为了能学好英文,我积极参加了大量英语活动,其中获益最大的是参加了学校的英语演讲比赛。经过层层筛选,最终全校两万多名学生中只有8名晋级决赛,我便是其中之一。为了准备这场比赛,我对自己进行了为期两个月的集训。因为英语演讲对语音的要求颇高,所以语音训练当然是最重要的。每天早上8点我便开始语音训练,从口腔嘴形训练到段落连读训练,一直持续到晚上10点结束。两个月的集中训练下来,我的英语发音有了长足的进步,基本上可以堪称Native Speaker的发音水平了。
现在回想起来,这段经历为我的英语学习打下了坚实的基础,同时也培养了我学习英语的信心和兴趣。在这个阶段,有两点经验是很受用的:一是要有持续的练习时间,1个月、2个月都可以,在这期间一定要精力集中、专项突破;二是最好要有志同道合的伙伴,一个好的partner不仅能帮你发现错误,还能帮你把如此高强度的训练坚持下去。
第二阶段:扩充词汇量
如果发音是建筑一座大厦的地基,那么词汇就是建筑材料。大学二年级的时候,我因为准备考GRE和托福而背了大量词汇。当时我买了十几本不同的词汇书,有A—Z编排的、词根词缀的、分类词汇的等等,只要有时间就会拿出一本来翻看。词汇积累是漫漫英语学习路中最枯燥的一段,走好这段路既需要毅力,也需要苦中求乐的积极心态,同时还要根据自身特点寻找记忆技巧。这十几本词汇书的内容其实相差不多,对我个人而言,不同的排版设计、不同的词汇顺序给了我不同的记忆刺激。到了后期,寻找不同词汇书中词汇解释的差别也成了我的小乐趣。
除了词汇书,我还专程跑到北京王府井外文书店购置了大量的外文原版小说,以及韦氏红、黄、黑、蓝等多本字典。注意是原版图书!这并不是说我只认国外的牌子,而是只有原版书籍才能保证学习材料的正确性,这一点很重要。通过阅读这些书籍,我积累了大量英文素材,巩固了相对生疏的词汇,还渐渐学会了欣赏这种语言的妙词佳句之美。
第三阶段:提高英语听说能力
大三那年考完GRE之后,我开始在一个培训学校教授GRE逻辑分析,也因此积累了人生第一桶金,用自己的钱买了一台DVD机和海量的DVD电影。不久非典来袭,大多数高校处于隔离与被隔离的恐慌之中,培训学校也纷纷歇业,此时的我无所适从,只能以看电影学英语消磨时间。也就是在这个时候,我吸收消化了大量优秀的英文电影和电视剧,例如《老友记》、《急诊室的故事》等等。DVD电影有个好处,就是可以调字幕。我在看电影的时候必定调出英文字幕,边看字幕边听,一旦遇到不认识的单词,就立刻暂停查单词,久而久之便积累了大量口语词汇,也习惯了英语口语表达的方式,同时还提高了听力。在这期间有一点很重要,对于想说地道英语的同学来说更是不可忽视,那就是“模仿”。看《老友记》时,经常是里面的人物说一句话,我就默默地或小声地重复一遍。现在总结起来,我认为学习英语的天赋无外乎两个基本能力:好的记忆力和模仿能力。
以上这三个阶段是我学习英语过程中最为重要的阶段,之后的出国留学无非是锦上添花。当时我出国考的是GRE和托福,因此回国重新投入英语教育之后,我决定亲自考一下雅思。2007年3月31日,我第一次参加雅思考试,得到了总分9分(听力9分,阅读9分,写作8分,口语9分)的分数。
要想考到9分,首先在听力考试中就要全神贯注,认真听懂每一句话,然后回答每一个问题。雅思听力其实很简单,只要能听懂,题目一般能做对,唯一的障碍可能就是分神没听清或是拼写错误。雅思听力中混杂了英音和美音,有时还可能带点儿澳洲口音,某些连读和发音习惯需要我们仔细辨别。但雅思听力文章有个显著特点,那就是生活化。因此,针对相应的生活场景,我们有机会就要进行生活化语言的听力训练。
阅读部分对中国考生来说从来都不是最困难的,毕竟数年的英语教育都是基于阅读理解、完形填空而进行的。我在考试时也没有使用任何技巧,就是先花时间看懂文章,然后按照顺序逐个攻破每一道题,需要的时候再回到文章中去寻找相关信息来确认答案。雅思阅读的终极境界不是使用各种答题技巧去做题,而是能够做到真正的阅读并理解。
当时口语考到9分的经验可以跟大家进行独家分享。当时,第一部分的基本情况回答一切顺利,第二部分口语卡片要求谈论一个音乐或艺术作品。我选择了讲音乐,因为对艺术作品知之甚少,如果讲艺术作品就是给自己找麻烦。但是讲音乐的话,中国考生又都讲得太相似,如果和大多数人讲得一样就很难得到理想的分数,于是我当时决定要讲得独特一点,打算“think outside the box”。当时我讲道,“Speaking of music, I really enjoy listening to religious music…(我喜欢的是宗教音乐……)”,而且还运用了非常好的句式,例如“Whenever I listen to music, I feel like lifted up to heaven and drawn close to God. It gives peace to my mind and joy to my soul.”讲完之后我非常高兴,自认为讲得不错。但是进入到第三部分我就崩溃了,因为考官根据我的表述开始问一些具有思考性的问题。天啊!有些问题用中文我都不知道该怎么回答。当时第一个问题是“Who do you think contribute more to the society, musicians or professionals?”这是个社会性议题,如果两个辩论队对此展开辩论,估计一个钟头之后也未必能给出结论,我一介草民又该如何作答?此时只好跟考官大打太极拳:“That’s a very good question. But I’ve never thought about this question before. And I know that if you look at this question from different perspectives, you may have different answers. Well, I’m not really sure. Thank you.”考官意犹未尽继续追问,越问越深入,我当时没有办法,只好坦白交代:我不是这方面的专家,我不知道,我真的不知道……考试结束离开考场之后,我懊悔郁闷不已,以为这次肯定考砸了,估计最多也就是个7分。但是成绩下来之后却是9分。之后通过和许多同事探讨以及后来又陆续参加了大量雅思考试,我发现雅思口语考试更重要的是考查考生的英语表达能力,而非此人社会知识的多少深浅,所以只要语言本身出色就能得到理想的分数,这就像我经常说的:“What you say doesn’t really matter. What really matters is how and how well you say that.”
讲了这么多,其实无外乎在给广大考生传达这样一个信息,英语实力的造就绝非一朝一夕之事,但是也不乏事半功倍的好方法。虽说Practice makes perfect,但是practice并不是唯一的key,就像武林之中的高手分为两种:一为天资聪颖,勤学苦练者;二为资质欠佳,却得高人指点或偶获武林秘笈者。希望广大考生都能找到自己的“武林秘笈”并勤以研习,实现自己的理想和目标。
王毅
2012年6月于北京

文摘
TEST 5 (2012.5.10雅思阅读真题)
READING PASSAGE 2
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.
Questions 14-20
Reading passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.
List of headings
i The best moment to migrate
ii The unexplained rejection of closer feeding ground
iii The influence of weather on the migration route
iv Physical characteristics that allow birds to migrate
v The main reason why birds migrate
vi The best wintering grounds for birds
vii Research findings on how birds migrate
viii Successful migration despite trouble of wind
ix Contrast between long-distance migration and short-distance migration
x Mysterious migration despite lack of teaching

14 Paragraph A
15 Paragraph B
16 Paragraph C
17 Paragraph D
18 Paragraph E
19 Paragraph F
20 Paragraph G

Bird Migration
A
Birds have many unique design features that enable them to perform such amazing feats of endurance. They are equipped with lightweight, hollow bones, intricately designed feathers providing both lift and thrust for rapid flight, navigation systems superior to any that man has developed, and an ingenious heat conserving design that, among other things, concentrates all blood circulation beneath layers of warm, waterproof plumage, leaving them fit to face life in the harshest of climates. Their respiratory systems have to perform efficiently during sustained flights at altitude, so they have a system of extracting oxygen from their lungs that far exceeds that of any other animal. During the later stages of the summer breeding season, when food is plentiful, their bodies are able to accumulate considerable layers of fat, in order to provide sufficient energy for their long migratory flights.
B
The fundamental reason that birds migrate is to find adequate food during the winter months when it is in short supply. This particularly applies to birds that breed in the temperate and Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, where food is abundant during the short growing season. Many species can tolerate cold temperatures if food is plentiful, but when food is not available they must migrate. However, intriguing questions remain.
C
One puzzling fact is that many birds journey much further than would be necessary just to find food and good weather. Nobody knows, for instance, why British swallows, which could presumably survive equally well if they spent the winter in equatorial Africa, instead fly several thousands of miles further to their preferred winter home in South Africa’s Cape Province. Another mystery involves the huge migrations performed by arctic terns and mudflat-feeding shorebirds that breed close to Polar Regions. In general, the further north a migrant species breeds, the further south it spends the winter. For arctic terns this necessitates an annual round trip of 25,000 miles. Yet, en route to their final destination in far-flung southern latitudes, all these individuals overfly other areas of seemingly suitable habitat spanning two hemispheres. While we may not fully understand birds’ reasons for going to particular places, we can marvel at their feats.
D
One of the greatest mysteries is how young birds know how to find the traditional wintering areas without parental guidance. Very few adults migrate with juveniles in tow, and youngsters may even have little or no inkling of their parents’ appearance. A familiar example is that of the cuckoo, which lays its eggs in another species’ nest and never encounters its young again. It is mind boggling to consider that, once raised by its host species, the young cuckoo makes it own way to ancestral wintering grounds in the tropics before returning single-handedly to northern Europe the next season to seek out a mate among its own kind. The obvious implication is that it inherits from its parents an inbuilt route map and direction-finding capability, as well as a mental image of what another cuckoo looks like. Yet nobody has the slightest idea as to how this is possible.
E
Mounting evidence has confirmed that birds use the positions of the sun and stars to obtain compass directions. They seem also to be able to detect the earth’s magnetic field, probably due to having minute crystals of magnetite in the region of their brains. However, true navigation also requires an awareness of position and time, especially when lost. Experiments have shown that after being taken thousands of miles over an unfamiliar landmass, birds are still capable of returning rapidly to nest sites. Such phenomenal powers are the product of computing a number of sophisticated cues, including an inborn map of the night sky and the pull of the earth’s magnetic field. How the birds use their ‘instruments’ remains unknown, but one thing is clear: they see the world with a superior sensory perception to ours. Most small birds migrate at night and take their direction from the position of the setting sun. However, as well as seeing the sun go down, they also seem to see the plane of polarized light caused by it, which calibrates their compass. Traveling at night provides other benefits. Daytime predators are avoided and the danger of dehydration due to flying for long periods in warm, sunlit skies is reduced. Furthermore, at night the air is generally cool and less turbulent and so conducive to sustained, stable flight.
F
Nevertheless, all journeys involve considerable risk, and part of the skill in arriving safely is setting off at the right time. This means accurate weather forecasting, and utilizing favorable winds. Birds are adept at both, and, in laboratory tests, some have been shown to detect the minute difference in barometric pressure between the floor and ceiling of a room. Often birds react to weather changes before there is any visible sign of them. Lapwings, which feed on grassland, flee west from the Netherlands to the British Isles, France and Spain at the onset of a cold snap. When the ground surface freezes the birds could starve. Yet they return to Holland ahead of a thaw, their arrival linked to a pressure change presaging an improvement in the weather.
G
In one instance a Welsh Manx shearwater carried to America and released was back in its burrow on Skokholm Island, off the Pembrokeshire coast, one day before a letter announcing its release! Conversely, each autumn a small number of North American birds are blown across the Atlantic by fast-moving westerly tail winds. Not only do they arrive safely in Europe, but, based on ringing evidence, some make it back to North America the following spring, after probably spending the winter with European migrants in sunny African climes.

Questions 21-22
Choose TWO letters, A-E.
Write the correct letters in boxes 21 and 22 on your answer sheet.
Which TWO of the following statements are true of bird migration?
A Birds often fly further than they need to.
B Birds traveling in family groups are safe.
C Birds flying at night need less water.
D Birds have much sharper eye-sight than humans.
E Only shorebirds are resistant to strong winds.
Question 23-26
Complete the sentences below using NO MORE THAN ONE WORD OR NUMBER from the passage.
Write your answers in boxes 23-26 on your answer sheet.
23 It is a great mystery that young birds like cuckoos can find their wintering grounds without ______.
24 Evidence shows birds can tell directions like a ______ by observing the sun and the stars.
25 One advantage for birds flying at night is that they can avoid contact with ______.
26 Laboratory tests show that birds can detect weather without ______signs.

Reading Passage 2. Bird Migration
题目详解
Questions 14-20
思 路
这种题型忌讳寻找主题句或中心句,因为每个人对段落中心思想的判断通常不同,而且每个段落的首尾句也不一定是主题句或中心句,所以最好的解答方法应该是通过对每位考生都能读懂的标题进行反向思维,然后和段落内容进行比较,排除作答。
i. The best moment to migrate
如果某段落选这个标题,则该段落应该重点讲述鸟儿在冬天到来之前的什么时候或多久就开始迁徙,以及有什么可能的标志,例如第一片树叶落下或树叶变黄等等之类。
ii. The unexplained rejection of closer feeding ground
如果某段落选这个标题,则该段落应该讲到鸟儿迁徙到一个相对较近的地方就可以过冬,但它们却没有这样做,反而喜欢迁徙到较远的地方,这种现象是始料未及的。段落中除了对这种现象的描述之外,还可能有对这种现象的分析和解释。
iii. The influence of weather on the migration route
反向思维词:weather, migration route
如果某段落选这个标题,则该段落应该出现具体的天气状况以及不同的天气状况对鸟儿迁徙路线的影响,其中还可能出现具体的路线,也就是路线起止的地名等等。
iv. Physical characteristics that allow birds to migrate
反向思维词:physical characteristics
如果某段落选这个标题,则该段落应该具体提及鸟儿的一些生理特征,例如体型、羽毛,或解剖学特征,例如骨骼等,对飞行的影响。
v. The main reason why birds migrate
不容易进行反向思维,可以结合段落阅读进行判断。但是,可以猜测如果某段落选这个标题,则该段落应该在开头或结尾。
vi. The best wintering grounds for birds
反向思维词:wintering grounds
如果某段落选这个标题,则该段落应该出现具体的鸟儿过冬地点、具体的地名之类的列举,并陈述它们为什么是最好的等等。
vii. Research findings on how birds migrate
如果某段落选这个标题,则该段落应该出现关于鸟儿迁徙方面的一系列研究发现,还可能出现具体的对应的科学家或科学机构等等。
viii. Successful migration despite trouble of wind
反向思维词:wind
如果某段落选这个标题,则该段落应该会提及风,以及风对鸟儿迁徙的影响。
ix. Contrast between long-distance migration and short-distance migration
反向思维词:long-distance migration, short-distance migration
如果某段落选这个标题,则该段落应该出现具体的涉及距离的信息,也就是数字,并对两种迁徙进行比较。可以结合具体的比较句型进行判断。
x. Mysterious migration despite lack of teaching
反向思维词:teaching
如果某段落选这个标题,则该段落应该提及鸟儿没有学习却仍然能够成功迁徙的现象及可能的原因解析。

解 答
14. Paragraph A. 该段落明显提及鸟类诸多生理和解剖结构上的特点利于鸟类飞行,例如“lightweight, hollow bones, intricately designed feathers”,“navigation systems superior to any that man has developed, and an ingenious heat conserving design”等等,并且其他标题的信息均未提及。所以正确答案为iv。
15. Paragraph B. 段落开头便开章明义地提出鸟类迁徙的基本原因是为了食物,全段都是围绕这个内容进行阐述的。所以正确答案为v。
16. Paragraph C. 段落开头提及标题ii的信息“rejection of closer feeding ground”,后面继续说到没有人知道这是为什么,并且举例说明。在段落后面继续提及这种现象的一个规律“the further north a migrant species breeds, the further south it spends the winter”。同时,其他标题信息也没有出现。所以正确答案为ii。
17. Paragraph D. 该段落主要是讲鸟类不需要“parental guidance”便能够找到自己的“wintering areas”,然后以杜鹃鸟(cuckoo)举例说明这个现象,并在最后提出可能的解释“The obvious implication is that it inherits from its parents an inbuilt route map and direction-finding capability, as well as a mental image of what another cuckoo looks like”。该段落虽然出现“wintering grounds”信息对应标题vi (The best wintering grounds for birds),但是并未提及什么样的地方才是鸟类最好的过冬之地,所以应该排除。于是,与该段落对应的唯一标题只有x(Mysterious migration despite lack of teaching),“teaching”对应原文“parental guidance”,“mysterious”对应原文“One of the greatest mysteries”和“Yet nobody has the slightest idea as to how this is possible”。所以正确答案为x。
18. Paragraph E. 该段落比较明显地提及了鸟类迁徙时辨别方向的机制,比如利用太阳和星星,利用地球磁场等等,这些信息都对应标题vii(Research findings on how birds migrate),虽然没出现具体的科学家或机构。段落最后提及的“Traveling at night provides other benefits”虽然对应标题i(The best moment to migrate),但是该段落并不是主要在讲鸟类应该在晚上迁徙或应该在什么时间迁徙,而是主要讲鸟类如何在迁徙时辨别方向,所以应该排除。正确答案为vii。
19. Paragraph F. 该段落开头提及“…part of the skill in arriving safely is setting off at the right time”对应标题i(The best moment to migrate),次句又提及“weather”对应标题iii(The influence of weather on the migration route),和“winds”对应标题viii(Successful migration despite trouble of wind),但是全段只是在讲鸟类有能力对气候变化做出最及时的反应(“react to weather changes before there is any visible sign of them”),并藉此选择最佳的迁徙时刻,并未提及具体的不同天气状况怎样影响鸟类迁徙路线,也未具体讲风的内容,所以标题iii和标题viii都应排除。所以正确答案为i。
20. Paragraph G. 段落以一个例子引出鸟类可以不受美洲和欧洲之间风的影响自由迁徙的事实,明显对应标题viii(Successful migration despite trouble of wind),且其他标题信息都未提及,所以正确答案为viii。

Questions 21-22
思 路
这种多选多的选择题具有信息分散的特点,且通常具有归纳总结性特征,在雅思阅读中属于难题,所以应该放在做题顺序的最后,在其余细节题做完之后再来解答,此时更容易定位。做题过程中,只能对每一个选项进行原文定位,阅读原文信息并判断。
解 答
选项A 该信息明显对应C段落所述内容“many birds journey much further than would be necessary”,所以为正确选项。
选项B 全文唯一提及“family”相关信息的地方是在D段落,但是这里并没有讲到“traveling in family groups”安全,只是提及鸟类没有父母指引仍然能寻觅到自己的过冬之地。全文唯一提及“safe”相关信息的地方是在段落E,但是也没有讲到“traveling in family groups”安全,只是提及夜晚飞行相对安全,因为“Daytime predators are avoided and the danger of dehydration due to flying for long periods in warm, sunlit skies is reduced”。所以该选项应该排除。
选项C 该信息对应E段落的倒数第二句话“the danger of dehydration due to flying for long periods in warm, sunlit skies is reduced”,也就是说夜晚飞行“need less water”。所以为正确选项。
选项D 原文虽然提及鸟类有较出色的身体构造,适合飞行,有比人类更敏锐的对天气变化感知的能力,有出色的认知方位的能力,但是却没有任何地方提及鸟类的“eye-sight”比人类出色,所以该选项应该排除。
选项E 原文G段落确实提及有些鸟类不会受到风的影响,可以自由横渡大西洋,原文只是说“each autumn a small number of North American birds…”,但是并未提及是只有“shorebirds”才能这样,所以该选项应该排除。
综上所述,正确答案为A,C。

Questions 23-26
23. 利用细节信息“young birds”,“cuckoos”和“wintering grounds”可以很容易定位到原文D段落第一句话“One of the greatest mysteries is how young birds know how to find the traditional wintering areas without parental guidance”,所以正确答案为parental guidance。
24. 利用细节信息“the sun and the stars”定位于原文E段落第一句话“Mounting evidence has confirmed that birds use the positions of the sun and stars to obtain compass directions”,所以正确答案为compass。
25. 利用细节信息“flying at night”定位于原文E段落倒数第二、三句话“Traveling at night provides other benefits. Daytime predators are avoided…”,所以正确答案为predators。
26. 利用细节信息“Laboratory tests”和“weather”定位于原文F段落“Birds are adept at both, and, in laboratory tests… birds react to weather changes before there is any visible sign of them”,所以正确答案为visible。
参考译文
鸟类迁徙
A
鸟类有许多独特的结构特征,使得它们表现出令人惊叹的耐久力。鸟类拥有极轻的体重、中空的骨骼、复杂的羽毛,这些为快速飞行提供了上升力和推动力。同时,鸟类还拥有比人类发明的任何导航系统都要优越的导航体系。此外,它精密的热保护结构会保证其温暖防水羽毛之下的血液循环的畅通,以便它们能够适应最恶劣的气候环境。鸟类必须具备极为高效的呼吸系统才能适应高空的持久飞行,因此,它们从肺部提取氧气的呼吸系统比任何其他物种的都高效得多。在食物丰富的夏季繁殖季后期,它们的体内会储存大量脂肪层,为它们长途迁徙飞行提供充足的能量。
B
鸟类迁徙主要是为了在冬季食物短缺时寻找到足够的食物。尤其是那些生长在北半球温带和北极圈地区的鸟类,因为这些地方只有在短暂的生长季节才会有充足的食物。在食物充足的情况下,很多鸟类都能忍受寒冷的天气,但当食物缺乏时,它们就不得不迁徙。然而,目前还存在一些令人不解的问题。
C
一个令人不解的现象是,很多鸟类的旅程距离远远长于它们为寻找食物和好天气所必需飞行的距离。例如,没人知道为什么本可以在非洲赤道区过冬的英国燕子非要不远千里飞到南非的开普省过冬。另一个谜团则是关于北极燕鸥以及在北极附近滩涂区哺育生活的水禽的大规模迁徙活动。通常,鸟类生活繁殖的地方越偏北,其冬季迁徙的地方就越偏南。对于北极燕鸥来说,它们每年的旅程长达25,000英里。但是,在飞往遥远的位于南纬度地区的目的地的途中,所有这些鸟类都会飞越许多地跨两个半球,看上去适合栖息的地区。虽然我们可能无法完全理解鸟类前往特定地区的原因,但是,我们也对鸟类游历世界的能力感到无比惊讶。
D
最大的谜团之一是幼鸟是如何在没有父母引导的情况下找到传统越冬之地的。成年的鸟类很少带领幼鸟一起迁徙,稚鸟甚至很少或者从没见过其父母。以布谷鸟(杜鹃)为例,它们将蛋产在其它鸟类的巢中,然后再也不会回去看望幼仔。让人惊讶的是,当小杜鹃在宿主家里长大后,它便会自己飞到其祖先在热带地区的越冬地,然后独自飞回北欧,寻找和自己同种类的配偶。这有力地说明了杜鹃能够从其父母那里继承内置的迁徙路线图和方向定位的能力,以及其他杜鹃鸟的外在长相的精神意象。然而,还没有人知道这究竟是怎么一回事。
E
越来越多的证据显示,鸟类能够利用太阳和星辰的方位来辨别方向。同时,它们似乎还能侦测地球磁场,这可能是由于鸟类脑部具有微小的磁性晶体的缘故。不过,真正的导航还需要对位置和时间的认知,特别是在迷路的时候。实验表明,当鸟儿被带出数千英里,跨越陌生的大陆板块之后,它们仍能迅速地回到自己的巢址。这种惊人的能力是对大量复杂的线索进行精密计算的结果,包括天生的夜空星图和地球磁场的拉力。鸟类是如何运用它们的“工具”的,我们还不得而知,但有一点是显而易见的:它们用比人类更高级的感官知觉来观察这个世界。大部分幼鸟在夜间进行迁徙,并通过日落的位置辨别方位。但是,当它们观察日落时,似乎还能观测到日落带来的偏极光,从而矫正它们的方位。夜间飞行还有其他好处。鸟类可以避开昼行食肉动物,并减少温暖日照下长时期飞行带来的脱水危险。此外,夜间的空气通常较为凉爽,很少有空气湍流,这有利于持续稳定的飞行。
F
然而,所有的旅程都暗含着危险,要想安全到达,其中一个要诀就是在正确的时间出发。这意味着要能准确地预测天气,并能合理地利用风向。鸟类从出生伊始就精通此道了。实验室测试还发现,有些鸟类甚至能够辨别出房间中天花板和地面之间气压的细微差别。通常,鸟类在有明显征兆前就能感应到即将发生的天气变化。鸟头麦鸡,一种生活在草原的鸟类,能够在寒流到来前从荷兰向西飞到不列颠群岛、法国和西班牙。当地表结冰时,它们可能会饿死。在冰雪消融之前,鸟儿们会再回到荷兰,它们是通过气压变化来预测天气转变的。
G
以威尔士马恩岛海鸥为例,它们被带到美国,然后再被释放,但是,在宣布被释放的消息之前,它们就已经飞回自己的住所——彭布罗克郡海岸线外的斯科克霍尔姆(Skokholm)岛了!相反地,每个秋天都会有少量的北美鸟类被快速移动的西尾风刮到大西洋的另一边。它们不仅安全地到达了欧洲,而且越来越多的证据显示,其中一些可能还和欧洲候鸟们一起去了阳光充沛的非洲地区过冬,然后才在次年春天飞回北美。

内容简介
《新航道•9分达人雅思阅读真题还原及解析2》共分为三大部分:第一部分包括最新7套雅思阅读真题,每套题共有三篇阅读文章;考生应对所有文章精读细读,达到完全理解的水平,因为每篇文章都有可能在考试中再次出现。
第二部分对本书收录的每套题目进行了详细解析,不仅帮助考生彻底弄懂每套试题,同时也教给考生相应的解题方法和技巧;包含所有文章的参考译文,翻译准确流畅,考生对英语原文若有任何不理解之处,可利用参考译文帮助理解。
第三部分为7套雅思阅读真题的参考答案,可供考生进行自我检测。

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