# The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory.pdf

*书籍描述*

**内容简介**

The second edition of The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory presents a comprehensive introduction to cutting-edge research in contemporary theoretical and computational semantics. Features completely new content from the first edition of The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory Features contributions by leading semanticists, who introduce core areas of contemporary semantic research, while discussing current research Suitable for graduate students for courses in semantic theory and for advanced researchers as an introduction to current theoretical work

**作者简介**

**Shalom Lappin** is Professor of Computational Linguistics at King’s College London, a Fellow of the British Academy, and a Member of the Academia Europaea. He is co-editor, with Alexander Clark and Chris Fox, of *The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing* (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), and author, with Alexander Clark, of *Linguistic Nativism and the Poverty of the Stimulus* (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011).**Chris Fox** is a Reader in the School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex. He is the author of *The Ontology of Language* (2000) and, with Shalom Lappin, *Foundations of Intensional Semantics* (Wiley-Blackwell, 2005).

**目录**

**Introduction**

**Part I Quantifiers, Scope, Plurals, and Ellipsis**

** **

**1 ****Generalized quantifiers in natural language semantics**

*Dag Westerståhl *

1 Introduction

2 Definitions

3 Determiner phrases (DPs) and quantifiers

4 Meaning the same on every universe

5 Domain restriction

6 Boolean operations on quantifiers

7 Quantifiers in the number triangle

8 Basic properties

8.1 Symmetry

8.2 Negations

8.3 Monotonicity

9 Definiteness

10 Decomposition

11 Questions of expressive power

11.1 most vs. more_than

11.2 Definability from monotone quantifiers

11.3 Polyadic quantifiers and reducibility

11.4 Resumption, polyadicity, and processing

References

**2 ****Scope**

*Chris Barker *

1 Scope basics

1.1 The difference 66 between scope and quantification

1.2 Some additional resources

1.3 Scope ambiguity

1.4 Linear scope bias

1.5 Inverse scope versus inverse linking

1.6 Scope islands

1.7 Scope and ellipsis

2 Theories of scope

2.1 Quantifying In

2.2 Quantifier Raising

2.3 Cooper Storage

2.4 Flexible Montague Grammar

2.5 Function composition: scope as surface constituency

2.6 The logic of scope-taking

3 Continuations, scope, and binding

3.1 Syntactic categories for reasoning about scope-taking

3.2 A continuation-based grammar

3.3 Tower notation

3.4 Directionality: explaining scope bias

3.5 Scope ambiguity

3.6 Quantificational binding

3.7 C-command is not required for quantificational binding

3.8 Crossover

4 Kinds of scope-taking

4.1 Lowering (‘total reconstruction’)

4.2 Split scope

4.3 Existential versus distributive quantification

4.4 Parasitic scope

4.5 Recursive scope

5 Indefinites

5.1 Referential indefinites vs. wide-scope indefinites

5.2 Skolemization

5.3 Branching quantifiers

5.4 Motivating choice functions: the Donald Duck problem

5.5 Pseudoscope

5.6 Skolemized choice functions

5.7 Cumulative readings

5.8 De dicto/de re

6 Dynamic semantics

7 Hamblin Semantics

8 Computational processing

References

**3 ****Plurals**

*Yoad Winter and Remko Scha *

1 Introduction

2 Basic facts and terminology

3 The denotation of referential plurals

3.1 The algebra of subsets and its mereological counterpart

3.2 Hierarchical structures

3.3 Events and ‘anti-pluralist’ approaches

4 Distributivity

4.1 Lexical reinterpretation

4.2 Quantificational distributivity

4.3 Link’s distributivity operator

4.4 Beyond Link’s distributivity operator?

4.5 Notes on further issues

5 Plurals and quantification

5.1 Quantificational expressions

5.2 QEs: modifiers or determiners?

5.3 The modifier approach

5.4 The determiner approach

5.5 Further problems with plurals and quantification

6 Conclusion

References

**4 ****Ellipsis**

*Ruth Kempson, Ronnie Cann, Arash Eshghi, Eleni Gregoromichelaki, and Matthew Purver*

1 Ellipsis: a window on context?

1.1 Ellipsis in informal conversations

2 Meeting the Ellipsis Challenge

2.1 Syntactic approaches to ellipsis

2.2 Semantic approaches to ellipsis

2.3 Grappling with fragment heterogeneity

2.4 Compound utterances and the challenge of incrementality

3 Dynamic Syntax

3.1 A grammar for incremental processing

3.2 Re-using context: ellipsis in Dynamic Syntax

4 Reflections

References

**Part II Modification, Presupposition, Tense and Modality**

**5 ****Adjectival modification and gradation**

*Daniel Lassiter *

1 Introduction

2 Adjective-noun combination

2.1 Kinds of adjectival modification

2.2 Intensional treatment

2.3 Modification of individuals and events

3 Gradation and degrees

3.1 Diagnosing gradability

3.2 Modeling gradability with and without degrees

3.3 Morphosemantics of the positive form.

3.4 Vagueness and context-dependence of the positive form

4 Adjectives and scales

4.1 Dimensionality

4.2 Antonymy

4.3 Adjective type, boundedness, and degree modification

5 Comparatives and degree operator scope

5.1 A theory of comparatives .

5.2 Scope interactions between degree operators, modals, and quantifiers

6 Conclusion

References

**6 ****Presupposition and implicature**

*Christopher Potts *

1 Introduction

2 Presupposition

2.1 Kinds of presupposition

2.2 Presupposition triggers

2.3 Presupposition projection

2.4 Presuppositions in discourse

2.5 Accommodation

2.6 Theoretical approaches

3 Conversational implicature

3.1 Conversational maxims

3.2 Defining conversational implicature

3.3 Examples and non-examples

3.4 Properties

3.5 Theoretical approaches

4 Conventional implicature

4.1 Defining conventional implicature

4.2 Examples

4.3 Properties

4.4 Theoretical approaches

5 Conclusion

References

**7 ****The Semantics of Tense and Aspect**

Tim Fernando

1 Introduction: Prior and beyond

1.1 Reichenbach

1.2 The imperfective, intervals and aspectual classes

1.3 Prior extended three ways

1.4 Fluents, segmentations, strings and automata

2 Within a timeline

2.1 Homogeneity, segmentations and strings

2.2 Durative and telic strings

2.3 Segmented and whole fluents

3 Between timelines

3.1 Desegmenting by block compression

3.2 IL inverted and strung out .

3.3 From subsumption to superposition

3.4 Containment and constraints

4 Behind timelines

4.1 Inertial statives and force

4.2 Incremental change

4.3 Temporal indeterminacy

References

**8 ****Conditionals and Modality**

*Magdalena Kaufmann and Stefan Kaufmann *

1 Introduction

2 Formal frameworks

2.1 Modal logic

2.2 Kratzer Semantics

3 Conditionals

3.1 Iffy operators and the Import-Export Principle

3.2 The restrictor analysis

3.3 Ordering sources

4 Current debates and open issues

4.1 Covert operators

4.2 Further readings: some questions about homogeneity

A Proofs

References

**Part III Non-Declaratives**

** **

**9 ****Semantics of Questions**

*Andrzej Wis´niewski *

1 Introduction

2 Setting the field .

2.1 Questions vs. propositions

2.2 Answers and answerhood

2.3 Further issues

3 Theories of questions

3.1 Questions as sets of declaratives

3.2 Questions as epistemic imperatives

3.3 Questions as interrogative speech acts semantically construed

3.4 Questions as sentential functions

3.5 From sentential functions to their interrogative closures

3.6 Interrogative operators: Kubin´ ski’s account

3.7 Subjects and requests: Belnap

3.8 Questions as intensions of interrogatives: basic approaches

3.9 Questions as partitions of the logical space: Groenendijk and Stokhof

3.10 Questions as propositional abstracts: Ginzburg’s account

3.11 Questions in Inquisitive Semantics .

3.12 General remarks. E-formulas

4 Minimal Erotetic Semantics: Basics and Tools

4.1 Partitions, admissible partitions, and entailment

4.2 Admissible partitions and entailment: examples

4.3 A digression: the minimalistic method of determining admissible partitions

4.4 Multiple-conclusion entailment

5 Minimal Erotetic Semantics: Questions

5.1 Soundness of a question .

5.2 Presuppositions and prospective presuppositions

5.3 Types of questions .

5.4 Types of answers

5.5 Dependencies

6 Erotetic Inferences and How Questions Arise

6.1 Evocation of questions

6.2 Erotetic implication

7 Other Developments .

8 Further Readings

References

**10 ****The Semantics of Imperatives**

*Chris Fox *

1 Introduction

1.1 Imperatives and Entailment

1.2 Structure of this Chapter

2 Examples of imperatives

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Negation

2.3 Conjunction

2.4 Free choice and weak disjunction

2.5 Conditional

2.6 Pseudo imperatives

2.7 Relationship to Deontic Modals

3 Problematic cases

3.1 Jørgensen’s dilemma

3.2 Ross’s Paradox

3.3 Good Samaritan

4 Survey of proposals

4.1 Issues and Criteria

4.2 Some existing accounts

5 A Judgmental Approach

5.1 In defense of a non-reductive analysis

5.2 Nature of judgments

5.3 A framework for imperative judgments

5.4 Satisfaction

5.5 Truth

5.6 Sequential Commands

5.7 A comment on the formalization

5.8 Models for Imperative Theories

5.9 Summary

6 Conclusions

References

**Part IV Type Theory and Computational Semantics**

** **

**11 ****Constructive Type Theory**

*Aarne Ranta *

1 Introduction

2 A brief history

3 Type theory in a nutshell

3.1 Sets and elements

3.2 Propositions and proofs

3.3 Natural deduction

3.4 How type theory strengthens predicate logic

4 Computability and constructive logic

5 Semantics of natural language

5.1 Donkey sentences

5.2 Progressive implication and conjunction

5.3 Discourse referents

6 Related semantic theories

6.1 Game-theoretical semantics

6.2 Presuppositions

6.3 The ontology of events

7 Type theory as a logical framework

7.1 The traditional notation for rules, types, and proofs

7.2 Logical frameworks

7.3 Type checking and contexts

8 The syntax-semantics interface

8.1 The Montague architecture

8.2 Categorial grammars and the Grammatical Framework

8.3 Montague Grammar in GF

8.4 More uses of the grammatical framework

9 Type theory and interaction

9.1 Dialogue systems

9.2 Theory of acts

References

**12 ****TTR for Natural Language Semantics**

*Robin Cooper and Jonathan Ginzburg *

1 Introduction

2 A theory of types and situations

2.1 Type theory and perception

2.2 TTR: Type theory with records

2.3 Subtyping

2.4 Function types

2.5 Complex types correspondings to propositional connectives

2.6 Set and list types

2.7 The string theory of events

2.8 Inference from partial observation of events

3 Grammar in TTR

4 A theory of abstract entities

4.1 Questions

5 Interaction on dialogue gameboards

6 Unifying metacommunicative and illocutionary interaction

7 Traditional semantic concerns in a dialogue perspective

7.1 Negation

7.2 Generalized quantifiers

8 Grammar in dialogue

8.1 Non Sentential Utterances

8.2 Disfluencies

9 Conclusions and future directions .

References

**13 ****Curry Typing, Polymorphism, and Fine-Grained Intensionality**

*Shalom Lappin**. *

1 Introduction

2 Higher-Order Intensional Logic

2.1 The Syntax and Semantics of IL

2.2 Generalized Quantifiers and Modification in IL

2.3 Problems with IL

2.4 A Representability Problem for Possible Worlds

3 Property Theory with Curry Typing .

3.1 The Untyped *l*-Calculus, Curry Typing, and First-Order Logic

3.2 Syntax of PTCT

3.3 A Proof Theory for PTCT

3.4 Polymorphism and Subtyping

3.5 Semantics of PTCT

4 Fine-Grained Intensionality

4.1 Distinguishing Intensional Identity and Provable Equivalence

4.2 A Computational Account of Intensional Difference

5 Probabilistic Semantics

5.1 Gradience and Semantic Learning

5.2 Type Theory in Probabilistic Semantics: A Top-Down Approach

5.3 Type Theory in Probabilistic Semantics: A Bottom-Up Approach

5.4 Uncertainty and Vagueness

6 Conclusions and Future Work

References

**14 ****Semantic Complexity in Natural Language**

*Ian Pratt-Hartmann *

1 Introduction

2 Fragments of Language

3 Technical background

4 Syllogistic proof systems

5 Basic syllogistic fragments: complexity

6 Relative clauses

7 Noun-level-negation

8 Numerical determiners

9 Bound-variable anaphora

References

**15 ****Implementing Semantic Theories**

Jan van Eijck

1 Introduction

2 Direct Interpretation or Logical Form?

3 Model Checking Logical Forms

4 Example: Implementing Syllogistic Inference

5 Implementing Fragments of Natural Language

6 Extension and Intension

7 Implementing Communicative Action

8 Resources

9 Appendix

References

**16 ****Vector Space Models of Lexical Meaning**

*Stephen Clark *

1 Introduction

1.1 Distributional methods in Linguistics

1.2 Outline

2 Vector Space Models for Document Retrieval

2.1 Term-Document Matrix

3 Representing Word Meanings as Vectors

3.1 Context

3.2 Weighting and Similarity

3.3 Experiments

3.4 Discussion

4 Compositional Vector Space Models

4.1 Distributional Sentence Representations

4.2 Existing Vector Composition Methods

4.3 The Compositional Framework

5 Conclusion

References

**17 ****Recognizing Textual Entailment**

*Mark Sammons *

1 Introduction .

2 Task Definition

2.1 Definition of Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE) Task

2.2 Generating RTE Corpora

2.3 Critique of Task Definition

3 Knowledge/Inference Phenomena in Textual Entailment

3.1 Survey of relevant literature

3.2 Existing Knowledge Resources

3.3 Summary

4 Two Contrasting Models for RTE Inference

4.1 Formal Proof-Theoretic Model

4.2 Shallow Lexical Model

4.3 Machine Learning for Recognizing Textual Entailment

5 Theoretical Models for RTE Inference

6 Compromise Approaches to RTE

6.1 Relaxed Proof-Theoretic Approaches

6.2 Transformation-based Models

6.3 Alignment-based Models

7 The State of the Art/Future Directions

7.1 Entailment Models

7.2 Refining the RTE Evaluation

7.3 Meaning Representation and Knowledge Resources

8 Conclusions

References

**Part V Interfaces**

** **

**18 ****Natural Logic**

*Lawrence S. Moss *

1 Introduction: Logic for Natural Language, Logic in Natural Language

1.1 Examples of inferences treated in this chapter

1.2 Semantics and logic

1.3 Overview of the contents of this chapter

1.4 References on natural logic

2 Extended Syllogistic Inference

2.1 The simplest fragment A “of All”

2.2 A second fragment: RCA

3 Logics with Individual Variables

3.1 Syntax and semantics of RCA†(opp)

3.2 Proof system

3.3 Example derivations

4 Inference with Monotonicity and Polarity

4.1 Background: preorders and their opposites

4.2 Higher-order terms over preorders and the Context Lemma

4.3 Examples of typed terms and inferences

5 Conclusion

References

**19 ****The Syntax-Semantics Interface**

*Malka Rappaport Hovav and Beth Levin*

1 Introduction

1.1 Argument realization

1.2 Determining what is lexical

1.3 Verb classes and argument alternations

2 Types of lexical semantic representation

2.1 Semantic role lists

2.2 Proto-roles: A form of generalized semantic role

2.3 Predicate decompositions

3 Isolating semantically relevant facets of meaning

3.1 The localist approach

3.2 The aspectual approach

3.3 The scalar approach: Manner and result

3.4 The causal approach

3.5 Concluding words on the four approaches

4 Mapping between lexical semantics and syntax

4.1 Prominence vs. equivalence class based approaches

4.2 Thematic hierarchies

4.3 (Neo)-constructionist vs. projectionist approaches

5 Conclusion .

References

**20 ****Reference in Discourse**

*Andrew Kehler *

1 Introduction

2 Fundamentals

3 Taking Inventory

3.1 Indefinite a

3.2 Indefinite this

3.3 Definite the-NPs

3.4 Familiar that

3.5 Demonstratives

3.6 Pronouns

4 Form of Reference, Cognitive Status, and Conversational Implicature

5 Complexities in the Interpretation of a- and the-NPs

5.1 Inferrables

5.2 Weak Definites

5.3 Deferred Reference

6 Complexities in the Interpretation of Pronouns

6.1 Cataphora

6.2 Pronouns of Laziness

6.3 Anaphoric Islands

7 Pronouns as a Window into Referential Processing

7.1 Thematic Roles and Event Structure

7.2 The Role of Coherence Establishment

7.3 A Bayesian Model of Pronoun Production and Interpretation

8 Conclusion

References

**21 ****Probabilistic Semantics and Pragmatics**

*Noah D. Goodman and Daniel Lassiter *

1 Probabilistic models of commonsense reasoning

1.1 Stochastic *l*-Calculus and Church

1.2 Commonsense knowledge

1.3 Possible worlds

2 Meaning as condition

2.1 Composition

2.2 Random type shifting

2.3 Interpreting English in Church: the Lexicon

2.4 Example interpretations

2.5 Ambiguity

2.6 Compositionality

2.7 Extensions and related work

3 Pragmatic interpretation

3.1 Quantity implicatures

3.2 Extensions and related work .

4 Semantic indices

4.1 Vagueness and indeterminate boundaries

4.2 Extensions and related work

5 Conclusion

6 Acknowledgements

References

**22 ****Semantics and Dialogue**

*David Schlangen *

1 Introduction

2 Background: A Naïve Model of Dialogue and the Semantics/Pragmatics Interface in Dialogue

2.1 The Semantics/Pragmatics Interface .

2.2 Dialogue as Distributed Monologue

3 Some Dialogue Phenomena That Challenge The Naïve Model

3.1 Non-Sentential Utterances

3.2 Continuers and Collaborative Completions

3.3 Disfluencies, Interjections, and Laughter

3.4 Interaction-Directed Utterances

3.5 Depictive Uses of Utterances and Co-Expressive Gestures

3.6 Semantic Shifts In and Through Conversation

4 The Semantics/Pragmatics Interface in Current Theories of Dialogue

4.1 Some General Desiderata for Theories of Dialogue

4.2 An underspecification-based approach: SDRT

4.3 A context-functional approach: KoS

4.4 A brief comparison.

5 Conclusions

References

**23 ****Semantics and Language Acquisition**

*Eve V. Clark *

1 What are words for? .

2 Starting points

3 Early word use: over-extension and restriction

4 Semantic relations and new words

5 Semantic fields

6 Approaches to Word Learning

7 Constraint-based approaches

8 Socio-pragmatic approaches

9 Cross-linguistic studies

10 What children learn about meaning in their first few years

11 Negotiating Meanings in Conversation

References

**About the Authors**