Handbook Of Contemporary Semantic Theory.pdf
The second edition of The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory presents a comprehensive introduction to cutting-edge research in contemporary theoretical and computational semantics. Features completely new content from the first edition of The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory Features contributions by leading semanticists, who introduce core areas of contemporary semantic research, while discussing current research Suitable for graduate students for courses in semantic theory and for advanced researchers as an introduction to current theoretical work
Shalom Lappin is Professor of Computational Linguistics at King's College London, a Fellow of the British Academy, and a Member of the Academia Europaea. He is co-editor, with Alexander Clark and Chris Fox, of The Handbook of Computational Linguistics and Natural Language Processing (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), and author, with Alexander Clark, of Linguistic Nativism and the Poverty of the Stimulus (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011). Chris Fox is a Reader in the School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex. He is the author of The Ontology of Language (2000) and, with Shalom Lappin, Foundations of Intensional Semantics (Wiley-Blackwell, 2005).
Introduction Part I Quantifiers, Scope, Plurals, and Ellipsis 1 Generalized quantifiers in natural language semantics Dag Westerstahl 1 Introduction 2 Definitions 3 Determiner phrases (DPs) and quantifiers 4 Meaning the same on every universe 5 Domain restriction 6 Boolean operations on quantifiers 7 Quantifiers in the number triangle 8 Basic properties 8.1 Symmetry 8.2 Negations 8.3 Monotonicity 9 Definiteness 10 Decomposition 11 Questions of expressive power 11.1 most vs. more-than 11.2 Definability from monotone quantifiers 11.3 Polyadic quantifiers and reducibility 11.4 Resumption, polyadicity, and processing References 2 Scope Chris Barker 1 Scope basics 1.1 The difference 66 between scope and quantification 1.2 Some additional resources 1.3 Scope ambiguity 1.4 Linear scope bias 1.5 Inverse scope versus inverse linking 1.6 Scope islands 1.7 Scope and ellipsis 2 Theories of scope 2.1 Quantifying In 2.2 Quantifier Raising 2.3 Cooper Storage 2.4 Flexible Montague Grammar 2.5 Function composition: scope as surface constituency 2.6 The logic of scope-taking 3 Continuations, scope, and binding 3.1 Syntactic categories for reasoning about scope-taking 3.2 A continuation-based grammar 3.3 Tower notation 3.4 Directionality: explaining scope bias 3.5 Scope ambiguity 3.6 Quantificational binding 3.7 C-command is not required for quantificational binding 3.8 Crossover 4 Kinds of scope-taking 4.1 Lowering ('total reconstruction') 4.2 Split scope 4.3 Existential versus distributive quantification 4.4 Parasitic scope 4.5 Recursive scope 5 Indefinites 5.1 Referential indefinites vs. wide-scope indefinites 5.2 Skolemization 5.3 Branching quantifiers 5.4 Motivating choice functions: the Donald Duck problem 5.5 Pseudoscope 5.6 Skolemized choice functions 5.7 Cumulative readings 5.8 De dicto/de re 6 Dynamic semantics 7 Hamblin Semantics 8 Computational processing References 3 Plurals Yoad Winter and Remko Scha 1 Introduction 2 Basic facts and terminology 3 The denotation of referential plurals 3.1 The algebra of subsets and its mereological counterpart 3.2 Hierarchical structures 3.3 Events and 'anti-pluralist' approaches 4 Distributivity 4.1 Lexical reinterpretation 4.2 Quantificational distributivity 4.3 Link's distributivity operator 4.4 Beyond Link's distributivity operator? 4.5 Notes on further issues 5 Plurals and quantification 5.1 Quantificational expressions 5.2 QEs: modifiers or determiners? 5.3 The modifier approach 5.4 The determiner approach 5.5 Further problems with plurals and quantification 6 Conclusion References 4 Ellipsis Ruth Kempson, Ronnie Cann, Arash Eshghi, Eleni Gregoromichelaki, and Matthew Purver 1 Ellipsis: a window on context? 1.1 Ellipsis in informal conversations 2 Meeting the Ellipsis Challenge 2.1 Syntactic approaches to ellipsis 2.2 Semantic approaches to ellipsis 2.3 Grappling with fragment heterogeneity 2.4 Compound utterances and the challenge of incrementality 3 Dynamic Syntax 3.1 A grammar for incremental processing 3.2 Re-using context: ellipsis in Dynamic Syntax 4 Reflections References Part II Modification, Presupposition, Tense and Modality 5 Adjectival modification and gradation Daniel Lassiter 1 Introduction 2 Adjective-noun combination 2.1 Kinds of adjectival modification 2.2 Intensional treatment 2.3 Modification of individuals and events 3 Gradation and degrees 3.1 Diagnosing gradability 3.2 Modeling gradability with and without degrees 3.3 Morphosemantics of the positive form. 3.4 Vagueness and context-dependence of the positive form 4 Adjectives and scales 4.1 Dimensionality 4.2 Antonymy 4.3 Adjective type, boundedness, and degree modification 5 Comparatives and degree operator scope 5.1 A theory of comparatives . 5.2 Scope interactions between degree operators, modals, and quantifiers 6 Conclusion References 6 Presupposition and implicature Christopher Potts 1 Introduction 2 Presupposition 2.1 Kinds of presupposition 2.2 Presupposition triggers 2.3 Presupposition projection 2.4 Presuppositions in discourse 2.5 Accommodation 2.6 Theoretical approaches 3 Conversational implicature 3.1 Conversational maxims 3.2 Defining conversational implicature 3.3 Examples and non-examples 3.4 Properties 3.5 Theoretical approaches 4 Conventional implicature 4.1 Defining conventional implicature 4.2 Examples 4.3 Properties 4.4 Theoretical approaches 5 Conclusion References 7 The Semantics of Tense and Aspect Tim Fernando 1 Introduction: Prior and beyond 1.1 Reichenbach 1.2 The imperfective, intervals and aspectual classes 1.3 Prior extended three ways 1.4 Fluents, segmentations, strings and automata 2 Within a timeline 2.1 Homogeneity, segmentations and strings 2.2 Durative and telic strings 2.3 Segmented and whole fluents 3 Between timelines 3.1 Desegmenting by block compression 3.2 IL inverted and strung out . 3.3 From subsumption to superposition 3.4 Containment and constraints 4 Behind timelines 4.1 Inertial statives and force 4.2 Incremental change 4.3 Temporal indeterminacy References 8 Conditionals and Modality Magdalena Kaufmann and Stefan Kaufmann 1 Introduction 2 Formal frameworks 2.1 Modal logic 2.2 Kratzer Semantics 3 Conditionals 3.1 Iffy operators and the Import-Export Principle 3.2 The restrictor analysis 3.3 Ordering sources 4 Current debates and open issues 4.1 Covert operators 4.2 Further readings: some questions about homogeneity A Proofs References Part III Non-Declaratives 9 Semantics of Questions Andrzej Wis'niewski 1 Introduction 2 Setting the field . 2.1 Questions vs. propositions 2.2 Answers and answerhood 2.3 Further issues 3 Theories of questions 3.1 Questions as sets of declaratives 3.2 Questions as epistemic imperatives 3.3 Questions as interrogative speech acts semantically construed 3.4 Questions as sentential functions 3.5 From sentential functions to their interrogative closures 3.6 Interrogative operators: Kubin' ski's account 3.7 Subjects and requests: Belnap 3.8 Questions as intensions of interrogatives: basic approaches 3.9 Questions as partitions of the logical space: Groenendijk and Stokhof 3.10 Questions as propositional abstracts: Ginzburg's account 3.11 Questions in Inquisitive Semantics . 3.12 General remarks. E-formulas 4 Minimal Erotetic Semantics: Basics and Tools 4.1 Partitions, admissible partitions, and entailment 4.2 Admissible partitions and entailment: examples 4.3 A digression: the minimalistic method of determining admissible partitions 4.4 Multiple-conclusion entailment 5 Minimal Erotetic Semantics: Questions 5.1 Soundness of a question . 5.2 Presuppositions and prospective presuppositions 5.3 Types of questions . 5.4 Types of answers 5.5 Dependencies 6 Erotetic Inferences and How Questions Arise 6.1 Evocation of questions 6.2 Erotetic implication 7 Other Developments . 8 Further Readings References 10 The Semantics of Imperatives Chris Fox 1 Introduction 1.1 Imperatives and Entailment 1.2 Structure of this Chapter 2 Examples of imperatives 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Negation 2.3 Conjunction 2.4 Free choice and weak disjunction 2.5 Conditional 2.6 Pseudo imperatives 2.7 Relationship to Deontic Modals 3 Problematic cases 3.1 Jorgensen's dilemma 3.2 Ross's Paradox 3.3 Good Samaritan 4 Survey of proposals 4.1 Issues and Criteria 4.2 Some existing accounts 5 A Judgmental Approach 5.1 In defense of a non-reductive analysis 5.2 Nature of judgments 5.3 A framework for imperative judgments 5.4 Satisfaction 5.5 Truth 5.6 Sequential Commands 5.7 A comment on the formalization 5.8 Models for Imperative Theories 5.9 Summary 6 Conclusions References Part IV Type Theory and Computational Semantics 11 Constructive Type Theory Aarne Ranta 1 Introduction 2 A brief history 3 Type theory in a nutshell 3.1 Sets and elements 3.2 Propositions and proofs 3.3 Natural deduction 3.4 How type theory strengthens predicate logic 4 Computability and constructive logic 5 Semantics of natural language 5.1 Donkey sentences 5.2 Progressive implication and conjunction 5.3 Discourse referents 6 Related semantic theories 6.1 Game-theoretical semantics 6.2 Presuppositions 6.3 The ontology of events 7 Type theory as a logical framework 7.1 The traditional notation for rules, types, and proofs 7.2 Logical frameworks 7.3 Type checking and contexts 8 The syntax-semantics interface 8.1 The Montague architecture 8.2 Categorial grammars and the Grammatical Framework 8.3 Montague Grammar in GF 8.4 More uses of the grammatical framework 9 Type theory and interaction 9.1 Dialogue systems 9.2 Theory of acts References 12 TTR for Natural Language Semantics Robin Cooper and Jonathan Ginzburg 1 Introduction 2 A theory of types and situations 2.1 Type theory and perception 2.2 TTR: Type theory with records 2.3 Subtyping 2.4 Function types 2.5 Complex types correspondings to propositional connectives 2.6 Set and list types 2.7 The string theory of events 2.8 Inference from partial observation of events 3 Grammar in TTR 4 A theory of abstract entities 4.1 Questions 5 Interaction on dialogue gameboards 6 Unifying metacommunicative and illocutionary interaction 7 Traditional semantic concerns in a dialogue perspective 7.1 Negation 7.2 Generalized quantifiers 8 Grammar in dialogue 8.1 Non Sentential Utterances 8.2 Disfluencies 9 Conclusions and future directions . References 13 Curry Typing, Polymorphism, and Fine-Grained Intensionality Shalom Lappin . 1 Introduction 2 Higher-Order Intensional Logic 2.1 The Syntax and Semantics of IL 2.2 Generalized Quantifiers and Modification in IL 2.3 Problems with IL 2.4 A Representability Problem for Possible Worlds 3 Property Theory with Curry Typing . 3.1 The Untyped l -Calculus, Curry Typing, and First-Order Logic 3.2 Syntax of PTCT 3.3 A Proof Theory for PTCT 3.4 Polymorphism and Subtyping 3.5 Semantics of PTCT 4 ...