Immunology: A Short Course, 7E.pdf
Immunology: A Short Course, ?Seventh Edition introduces all the critical topics of modern immunology in clear and succinct yet comprehensive fashion. The authors offer a uniquely-balanced coverage of classical and contemporary approaches and basic and clinical aspects. As with the previous editions, the strength of the text is in complete review of modern immunology without burdening the reader with excessive data or theoretical discussions. Each chapter is divided into short, self-contained units that address key topics illustrated by uniformly drawn, full-color illustrations and photographs.This new edition of?Immunology: A Short Course Provides? a fully-revised and updated edition of the best-selling short course and review book for undergraduate and medical studentsContains a brand new art program to reinforce learningProvides shortened introductory chapters to ensure a thorough understanding of the basics of immunologyIncludes a plethora of student support including end of chapter summaries and review questions.Provides flexible, portable content: available in several e-formatsThis new edition provides students and instructors with one of the most comprehensive teaching and learning packages available for the teaching and learning of immunology.
About the Authors Contributors Preface and Acknowledgments 1 OVERVIEW OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Introduction Innate and Acquired Immunity Innate Immunity Acquired Immunity Active, Passive, and Adoptive Immunization Clonal Selection Theory Humoral and Cellular Immunity Cell-Mediated Immunity Generation of Diversity in the Immune Response Benefits of Immunology Damaging Effects of the Immune Response The Future of Immunology The Short Course Begins Here References 2 INNATE IMMUNITY Introduction Innate Immunity Physical and Chemical Barriers of Innate Immunity Intracellular and Extracellular Killing of Microorganisms Cells Involved in the Innate Immune System Inflammation Fever Biologically Active Substances Receptors Involved in the Innate Immune System Pattern Recognition Receptors Acquired Immunity Cells and Organs Involved in Acquired Immunity The Lymphatic Organs Lymphocyte Migration and Recirculation Fate of Antigen After Penetration Frequency of Antigen-Specific Naive Lymphocytes Interrelationship Between Innate and Acquired Immunity Summary References Review Questions Answers to Review Questions 3 ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY 4 IMMUNOGENS AND ANTIGENS Introduction Requirements for Immunogenicity Foreignness High Molecular Weight Chemical Complexity Degradability Haptens Further Requirements for Immunogenicity Primary and Secondary Immune Responses Antigenicity and Antigen-Binding Site Epitopes Recognized by B and T Cells Major Classes of Antigens Binding of Antigen to Antigen-Specific Antibodies or T Cell Receptors Cross-Reactivity Adjuvants Summary References Review Questions Answers to Review Questions 5 ANTIBODY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION Introduction Isolation and Characterization of Immunoglobulins Structure of Light and Heavy Chains Immunoglobulin Domains Immunoglobulin Hinge Region Immunoglobulin Variable Region Immunoglobulin Variants Isotypes Allotypes Idiotypes Structural Features of IgG Biologic Properties of IgG Agglutination and Formation of Precipitate Passage of Ig Through the Placenta and Absorption in Neonates Opsonization Antibody-Dependent, Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Activation of Complement Neutralization of Toxins Immobilization of Bacteria Neutralization of Viruses Structural Features of IgM Biologic Properties of IgM Complement Fixation First Line of Humoral Defense Agglutination Isohemagglutinins Structural and Biologic Properties of IgA Biologic Properties of IgA Role in Mucosal Infections Bactericidal Activity Antiviral Activity Structural and Biologic Properties of IgD Structural and Biologic Properties of IgE Importance of IgE in Parasitic Infections and Hypersensitivity Reactions Kinetics of Antibody Responses Following Immunization Primary Response Secondary Response The Immunoglobulin Superfamily Summary References Review Questions Answers to Review Questions 6 ANTIGEN--ANTIBODY INTERACTIONS, IMMUNE ASSAYS, AND EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMS Introduction Antigen--Antibody Interactions Primary Interactions Between Antibody and Antigen Association Constant Affinity and Avidity Secondary Interactions Between Antibody and Antigen AgglutinationnReactions PrecipitationnReactions Immunoassays Direct-Binding Immunoassays Solid-Phase Immunoassays Immunofluorescence Direct Immunofluorescence Indirect Immunofluorescence Fluorescence-Activated Cell-Sorting Analysis Immunoabsorption and Immunoadsorption Cellular Assays Assays to Assess Lymphocyte Function B- and T-Cell Proliferation Assays Assays that Assess Antibody Production by B Cells Effector Cell Assays for T and NK Cells Cell Culture Primary Cell Cultures and Cloned Lymphoid Cell Lines B-Cell Hybridomas and Monoclonal Antibodies T-Cell Hybridomas Genetically Engineered Molecules and Receptors Experimental Animal Models Inbred Strains Adoptive Transfer SCID Mice Thymectomized and Congenically Athymic (Nude) Mice Transgenic Mice and Gene Targeting Transgenic Mice Knockout Mice Analysis of Gene Expression: Microarrays Summary References Review Questions Answers to Review Questions 7 THE GENETIC BASIS OF ANTIBODY STRUCTURE Introduction A Brief Review of Nonimmunoglobulin Gene Structure and Gene Expression Genetic Events in Synthesis of Ig Chains Organization and Rearrangement of Light-Chain Genes Organization and Rearrangement of Heavy-Chain Genes Regulation of Ig Gene Expression Class or Isotype Switching Generation of Antibody Diversity Presence of Multiple V Genes in the Germline VJ and VDJ Combinatorial Association Random Assortment of H and L Chains Junctional Diversity Somatic Hypermutation Somatic Gene Conversion Receptor Editing Role of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase in Generating Antibody Diversity Summary References Review Questions Case Study Answers to Review Questions Answer to Case Study 8 BIOLOGY OF THE B LYMPHOCYTE Introduction Development of B Lymphocytes Overview Sites of Early B-Cell Differentiation Early Stages of B-Cell Differentiation: Pro-B and Pre-B Cells Immature B Cells Mature B Cells B-Lymphocyte Traffic: Anatomical Distribution of B-Cell Populations Sites of Antibody Synthesis Thymus-Dependent Antibody Synthesis in the Germinal Center Antibody Synthesis in Mucosal Tissue Thymus-Independent Antibody Responses at Different Sites B-Cell Membrane Proteins Stage-Specific Markers Antigen-Binding Molecules: Membrane Immunoglobulin Signal Transduction Molecules Associated with Membrane Immunoglobulin Molecules Involved in T Cell--B Cell Interactions Summary References Review Questions Answers to Review Questions 9 HOW T CELLS RECOGNIZE ANTIGEN: THE ROLE OF THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX Introduction How the MHC Got Its Name Different MHC Molecules Interact with Different Sets of T Cells Variability of MHC Class I and MHC Class II Molecules Structure of MHC Class I Molecules Selectivity of Peptide Binding to MHC Class I Molecules CD8 Binding to Invariant Region of MHC Class I Molecules Structure of MHC Class II Molecule Antigen Processing and Presentation: How MHC Molecules Bind Peptides and Create Ligands that Interact with T Cells Exogenous Antigens and Generation of MHC Class II--Peptide Complexes Endogenous Antigens: Generation of MHC Class I--Peptide Complexes Decreased MHC Class I Expression in Virus-Infected and Tumor Cells Cross-Presentation: Exogenous Antigens Presented in the MHC Class I Pathway Which Antigens Trigger Which T-Cell Responses? Binding of Peptides Derived from Self-Molecules by MHC Molecules Inability to Respond to an Antigen Other Types of Antigen that Activate T-Cell Responses Lipids and Glycolipids Presented by CD1 to NKT Cells Genes of the HLA Region Polymorphic MHC Class I and II Genes Nomenclature of Polymorphic MHC Molecules Regulation of Expression of MHC Genes Codominant Expression Coordinate Regulation Inheritance of MHC Genes Other Genes Within HLA MHC in Other Species Diversity of MHC Molecules: MHC Association with Resistance and Susceptibility to Disease Summary References Review Questions Answers to Review Questions 10 BIOLOGY OF THE T LYMPHOCYTE Introduction The Antigen-Specific T-Cell Receptor Molecules that Interact with Antigen T-Cell Receptor Complex Coreceptor Molecules Other Important Molecules Expressed on the T-Cell Surface Genes Coding for T-Cell Receptors Generation of T-Cell Receptor Diversity T-Cell Differentiation in Thymus Interactions of Developing T Cells with Nonlymphoid Cells of Thymus Early T-Cell Receptor Gene Rearrangements: Double-Negative Cells and Splitting Off of gammadelta T Cells Pre-T Cells Double-Positive Cells Thymic Selection Role of AIRE Gene Product in Negative Selection Single-Positive Cells Generation of the T-Cell Repertoire Characteristics of alphabeta T Cells Emerging from Thymus Further Differentiation of CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells Outside Thymus Differentiation of Other Sets of Cells in Thymus Summary References Review Questions Answers to Review Questions 11 ACTIVATION AND FUNCTION OF T CELLS Introduction Activation of CD4+ T Cells Specialized Cells Present Antigen to Naive CD4+ T Cells Paired Interactions at the Surface of APC and CD4+ T Cells Intracellular Events in CD4+ T-Cell Activation Clonal Expansion, Differentiation to Effector Cells, and Migration Out of the Lymph Node Other Ways to Activate CD4+ T Cells Superantigens Plant Proteins and Antibodies to T-Cell Surface Molecules T-Cell Function Subsets of CD4+ T Cells Defined by Cytokine Production and Effector Function CD4+ T Cells T-Helper-Cell Function: Interaction of CD4+ T Cells with B Cells to Synthesize Antibody Activation and Function of CD8+ T Cells Generation of Effector CD8+ T Cells CD8+ T-Cell Killing of Target Cells MHC Restriction and CD8+ T Cell Killer Function Termination of the Response: Induction of Memory Cells Function of NKT Cells and gammadelta T Cells NKT Cells gammadelta T Cells B-Cell Function: Antibody Synthesis in the Absence of T-Cell Help Conjugate Vaccines Intracellular Pathways in B-Cell Activation Modulation of BCR Signal Summary References Review Questions Answers to Review Questions 12 CYTOKINES Introduction The History of Cytokines Pleiotropic and Redundant Properties of Cytokines General Properties of Cytokines Common Functional Properties Common Systemic Activities Common Cell Sources and Cascading Events Functional Categories of Cytokines Cytokines that Facilitate Innate Immune Responses Cytokines that Regulate Adaptive Immune Responses Cytokines that Induce Differentiation of Distinct T-Cell Lineages Cytokines that Inhibit Lineage-Specific T-Cell Differentiation Cytokines that Promote Inflammatory Responses Cytokines that Affect Leukocyte Movement Cytokines that Stimulate Hematopoiesis Cytokine Receptors Cytokine Receptor Families Common Cytokine Receptor Chains Cytokine Receptor-Mediated Signal Transduction Role of Cytokines and Cytokine Receptors in Disease Toxic-Shock Syndrome Bacterial Septic Shock Cancers Autoimmunity and Other Immune-Based Diseases Therapeutic Exploi...