太阳系物理与化学.pdf

太阳系物理与化学.pdf
 

书籍描述

内容简介
《太阳系物理与化学(第二版)(英文影印版)》全面介绍了太阳系的行星物理学和物理化学,覆盖了当前这些领域的研究以及受益于地面和空间实验的行星科学。这些实验构成了这本巧妙融合了归纳和阐释的参考书的基础。本书在详细讨论大行星的同时,对小行星、彗星,已经其他小天体也都作了讨论。本书可作为天文学家、物理学家和行星科学家的参考书,也可以用作他们授课的教材。

编辑推荐
《太阳系物理与化学(第二版)(英文影印版)》是引进自爱思唯尔出版集团的学术专著。地球只有一个,太阳系也只有一个。我们在探索这个世界时,首先要探索的就是我们的太阳系。这本书内容非常丰富,而且图文并茂,非常适合阅读。这一领域的研究者不能错过这本佳作。

作者简介
(美) 刘易斯 (J. S. Lewis),美国亚利桑那大学教授。

目录
Foreword xi
I Introduction
Nature and Scope of Planetary Science 1
Guide to the Literature 3
Numbers in Science 4
Dimensions and Units 5
Exercises 6
II Astronomical Perspective
Introduction 7
Distance Scales in the Universe 7
The Big Bang 10
Limitations on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis 14
Galaxy and Star Formation 15
Structure and Classification of Galaxies 16
Classification of Stars 18
Stellar Evolution 25
Star Clusters 27
Stellar Origins 29
Outline of Star Formation 33
Stellar Explosions and Nucleosynthesis 34
Nuclear Cosmochronology 43
Exercises 47
III General Description of
the Solar System
Introduction 50
The Sun 50
Orbits of the Planets 52
Changes in Orbital Motion 57
Properties of the Planets 58
Mass and Angular Momentum Distribution 59
Satellites 63
Asteroids 69
Comets 71
Meteors 72
Meteorites 72
Cosmic Dust 73
Cosmic Rays 73
Planetary Science in the Space Age 74
vii
Summary 76
Exercises 76
IV The Sun and the Solar Nebula
Introduction 77
Energy Production in the Sun 77
Energy Transport in the Sun 79
Internal Structure of the Sun 83
Surface of the Sun 84
The Chromosphere 87
The Corona 88
Discovery of the Solar Wind 90
Radio Wave Propagation in Space Plasmas 91
The Solar Wind 92
Chemistry of Solar Material 96
Ionization 97
Dissociation and Molecule Formation 100
Hydrogen and the Rare Gases 101
Oxygen, Carbon, and Nitrogen 102
Magnesium and Silicon 105
Iron 106
Sulfur 107
Aluminum and Calcium 108
Sodium and Potassium 109
Nickel and Cobalt 110
Phosphorus and the Halogens 111
Geochemical Classification of the Elements 111
The Chemistry of Rapid Accretion 116
Kinetic Inhibition 117
Mass and Density of the Solar Nebula 118
Thermal Opacity in the Solar Nebula 121
Dust Opacity 129
Thermal Structure of the Nebula 131
Turbulence and Dust Sedimentation 134
Accretion of Rocks, Planetesimals,
and Planets 136
Gas Capture from the Solar Nebula 138
The T Tauri Phase 141
Thermal History of the Early Solar System 143
Exercises 144
V The Major Planets
Introduction 147
Interiors of Jupiter and Saturn: Data 148
Isothermal Interior Models of Jupiter
and Saturn 151
Thermal Models of Jupiter and Saturn 154
The Atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn:
Observed Composition 156
Tropospheric Composition and Structure:
Theory 159
Cloud Condensation in the NH3–H2O–H2S
System 165
Cloud Physics on the Jovian Planets 174
Galileo Perspectives on Jovian Clouds 179
Ion Production in the Jovian Atmosphere 180
Visible and Infrared Radiative Transfer 183
Horizontal Structure and
Atmospheric Circulation 187
Photochemistry and Aeronomy 200
The Jovian Thermosphere 217
Radiophysics and Magnetospheres of Jupiter
and Saturn 218
The Interiors of Uranus and Neptune 229
Atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune 238
Perspectives 247
Exercises 247
VI Pluto and the Icy Satellites of
the Outer Planets
Introduction 252
Surfaces of Icy Satellites 253
Eclipse Radiometry 256
Surface Temperatures 257
Surface Morphology of the Galilean
Satellites 258
Density and Composition of Icy Satellites 265
Internal Thermal Structure of Galilean
Satellites 267
Dynamical Interactions of the Galilean
Satellites 272
Thermal and Tectonic Evolution of Icy
Satellites 275
Minor Satellites of Jupiter 278
Planetary Rings 280
Titan 289
The Intermediate-Sized Saturnian Satellites 293
Minor Satellites of Saturn 296
Satellites of Uranus 299
Satellites of Neptune 303
The Pluto–Charon System 308
The Neptune–Pluto Resonance 311
Spacecraft Exploration 311
Exercises 312
VII Comets and Meteors
Historical Perspectives 317
Nature and Nomenclature of Comets 319
Cometary Orbits 321
Heating by Passing Stars 325
Evaporation and Nongravitational Forces 326
The Nucleus and Coma of P/Halley 328
Chemistry and Photochemistry of Water 328
Further Chemical Processes in the Coma
and Tail 332
Behavior of Small Particles 333
Dynamical Behavior of Dust in Space 334
Meteors 336
Cometary Fireballs 343
Cometary Impacts on Jupiter 344
Exercises 347
VIII Meteorites and Asteroids
Introduction 350
Introduction to Meteorites 350
Meteorite Orbits 353
Phenomena of Fall 355
Physical Properties of Meteorites 358
Meteorite Minerals 362
Taxonomy and Composition of Chondrites 362
Metamorphic Grades of Chondrites 367
Taxonomy and Composition of Achondrites 369
Taxonomy and Composition of Stony-Irons 371
Taxonomy and Composition of Irons 372
Isotopic Composition of Meteorites 375
Genetic Relationships between Meteorite
Classes 382
Introduction to Asteroids 384
Asteroid Orbits 386
Stability of Trojan and Plutino Orbits 389
Sizes, Shapes, and Albedos of Asteroids 391
Masses and Densities of Asteroids 393
Photometry and Spectroscopy of Asteroids 394
Thermal Evolution of Asteroids 401
Dynamical Evolution of the Asteroid Belt 406
Centaurs and Trans-Neptunian Objects 409
Relationships among Asteroids, Meteorites,
and Comets 412
Radar Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids 415
Asteroid Resources 416
Exercises 419
IX The Airless Rocky Bodies: Io,
Phobos, Deimos, the Moon, and Mercury
Introduction 424
Orbits and Physical Structure of Phobos
and Deimos 426
Io: General Properties 430
Io: Surface Processes 430
Io: Internal Energy Sources 432
Io: Geology 433
Io: Atmospheric and Volcanic Gases 435
Io: Escape and the Plasma Torus 437
Io: Genetic Relationships 438
Impact Cratering 438
Motions of the Moon 443
Physical Properties of the Moon 445
Elemental Composition of the Moon’s
Surface 445
Lunar Rock Types 447
Lunar Minerals 449
Lunar Elemental Abundance Patterns 451
Geology of the Moon 451
Geophysics of the Moon 452
History of the Earth–Moon System 456
Origin and Internal Evolution of the Moon 458
Solar Wind Interaction with the Moon
and Mercury 460
The Planet Mercury 461
Motions of Mercury 461
Composition and Structure of Mercury 462
Noncrater Geology of Mercury 463
Geophysics of Mercury 463
Atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon 468
Polar Deposits on Mercury and the Moon 469
Unfinished Business 472
Exercises 474
X The Terrestrial Planets: Mars,
Venus, and Earth
Introduction 477
Mars 478
Motions of Mars 479
Density and Figure of Mars 479
Geophysical Data on Mars 481
Gravity and Tectonics of Mars 483
Geology of Mars 483
Surface Composition 496
Viking Lander Investigations 503
The Shergottite, Nakhlite, and
Chassignite Meteorites 505
Atmospheric Structure 508
Atmospheric Circulation 509
Atmospheric Composition 510
Photochemical Stability and
Atmospheric Escape 513
Explosive Blowoff 519
Origin and Evolution of the Atmosphere 519
Organic Matter and the Origin of Life 522
Venus 524
Motions and Dynamics of Venus 526
Geophysical Data on Venus 526
Geology of Venus 528
Venus: Atmospheric Structure and
Motions 534
Venus: Atmospheric Composition 537
Venus: Atmosphere–Lithosphere
Interactions 539
Venus: Photochemistry and Aeronomy 543
Venus: Atmospheric Escape 547
Venus: Planetary Evolution 549
Earth 550
Earth: Motions 551
Earth: Internal Structure 552
Earth: Magnetic Field and Magnetosphere 554
Earth: Surface Geology 554
Earth: Early Geological History 557
Earth: Biological History 559
Earth: Geochemistry and Petrology 563
Weathering in the Rock Cycle 566
Earth: Atmospheric Composition
and Cycles 568
Radiocarbon Dating 573
Stable Isotope Climate Records 574
Photochemistry and Aeronomy 575
Escape and Infall 575
Climate History, Polar Ice, and Ice Ages 579
Life: Origins 582
Life: Stability of the Biosphere 587
Exercises 588
XI Planets and Life around
Other Stars
Chemical and Physical Prerequisites of Life 592
The Planetary Environment 595
The Stellar Environment 597
Brown Dwarfs 600
The Search for Planets of Other Stars 603
The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence 606
Exercises 608
XII Future Prospects
Mercury 611
Venus 612
Earth’s Moon 612
Mars 613
Asteroids 614
Jupiter 615
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune 615
Pluto 615
Comets 616
Beyond the Solar System 616
Appendix I: Equilibrium
Thermodynamics 621
Heat and Work 621
Adiabatic Processes and Entropy 622
Useful Work and the Gibbs Free Energy 623
Chemical Equilibrium 623
Exact and Complete Differentials 624
The Maxwell Relations 625
Appendix II: Absorption and
Emission of Radiation by
Quantum Oscillators 626
Appendix III: Exploration of the
Solar System 629
Appendix IV: Basic Physical
Constants 634
Appendix V: Gravity Fields 635
Suggested Readings
Introduction 637
Chapter I–Introduction 637
Chapter II–Astronomical Perspective 637
Chapter III–General Description of the
Solar System 638
Chapter IV–The Sun and the Solar Nebula 638
Chapter V–The Major Planets 638
Chapter VI–Pluto and the Icy Satellites of the
Outer Planets 639
Chapter VII–Comets and Meteors 639
Chapter VIII–Meteorites and Asteroids 639
Chapter IX–The Airless Rocky Bodies: Io, Phobos,
Deimos, the Moon, and Mercury 640
Chapter X–The Terrestrial Planets: Mars, Venus,
and Earth 640
Chapter XI–Planets and Life
around Other Stars 641
Chapter XII–Future Prospects 642
Index 643

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