四级听力速成的秘密+六级翻译速成的秘密.pdf

四级听力速成的秘密+六级翻译速成的秘密.pdf
 

书籍描述

内容简介
本书主要针对目前的大学四六级考试的考生,帮助其进行英语四级听力考试准备。内容介绍了四级听力考试的要求,介绍了考试经验及掌握的难点,并辅以练习。最后一部分还附有四级听力考试真题,以便考生进行模拟训练。本书主要针对目前的大学四六级考试的考生,帮助其进行英语六级考试准备。内容介绍了六级翻译考试的要求,介绍了考试经验及掌握的难点,并辅以练习。最后一部分还附有六级翻译考试真题,以便考生进行模拟训练。

编辑推荐
丛书的内容是按照从前往后、由易到难的顺序编排的,无论考生现有的水平如何,都能够轻松介入。
丛书编者建议以“3个月”作为一个学习周期,但又不局限于此。使用本书的考生或学习者可以根据自己的现有水平、备考时间和学习时间等因素,进行适当调整。比如:
如果备考时间较长,考生可以将丛书内容拉伸到3个季度或1年内完成,这样就能学得更扎实。
如果备考时间较短,考生可以将丛书内容压缩到3周或1.5月内完成。通过本书的有效指导,达到熟悉题型、适应考试,强化应试能力的目的 本书的内容是按照从前往后由易到难的顺序编排的,无论考生现有的水平如何,都能够轻松介入。
本书编者建议以“3个月”作为一个学习周期,但又不局限于此。使用本书的考生或学习者可以根据自己的现有水平、备考时间和学习时间等因素,进行适当调整。比如说:
如果备考时间较长,考生可以将本书内容拉伸到3个季度或1年内完成,这样就能学得更扎实。
如果备考时间较短,考生可以将本书内容压缩到3周或1个半月内完成,通过本书的有效指导,达到熟悉题型、适应考试,强化应试能力的目的。

作者简介
韩笑,多年学习英语,并在国外留学,对英语学习有自己独特的见解和亲身实践经历,并具有多年的大学英语一线教学经验和四六级考试辅导经验。

目录

目录
听力导学
第一个月 基础篇
一、短对话
(一)数字信息类
(二)地点场景类
(三)人物身份关系类
渐进实测练习
Exercise 1
Exercise 2
Exercise 3
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
重点词汇、句型与语法
二、长对话
(一)犯罪事故类
(二)人生规划类
(三)商业活动类
渐进实测练习
Exercise 1
Exercise 2
Exercise 3
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
重点词汇、句型与语法
三、短文理解
(一)新闻故事类
(二)文化教育类
(三)传记故事类
渐进实测练习
Exercise 1
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
重点词汇、句型与语法
四、短文听写
(一)人文环境类
(二)风土人情类
(三)时事政治类
渐进实测练习
Exercise 1
Exercise 2
Exercise 3
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
Exercise 1
重点词汇、句型与语法
第一个月复习效果检验
Test 1
Test 2
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿

第二个月 提高篇
一、短对话
(一)事实状况类
(二)话题讨论类
(三)原因结果类
渐进实测练习
Exercise 1
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
Exercise 2
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
Exercise 3
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
二、长对话
学习新闻类
1.学习类常考场景
2.新闻类长对话
渐进实测练习
Exercise 1
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
Exercise 2
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
Exercise 3
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
三、短文理解
科普知识类
1.信息技术
2.天文地理
3.生物医学
渐进实测练习
Exercise 1
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
Exercise 2
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
Exercise 3
测试答案及详解
渐进测试听力文字稿
四、复合式听写
(一)英美文化
(二)风土人情
(三)文化教育
(四)、历史景观
渐进实测练习
Exercise 1
测试答案及详解
Exercise 2
测试答案及详解
Exercise 3
测试答案及详解
第二个月复习效果检验
Test 1Section A
测试答案及详解
听力文字稿

Section B
Test 2
Section A
Section B
Section C
测试答案及详解
听力文字稿

第三个月 冲刺篇
一、短对话
1.行动计划类
2. 观点态度类
3. 虚拟语气类
Exercise 1
原文、答案及解析
Exercise 2
原文、答案及解析
Exercise 3
原文、答案及解析
二、长对话
科普知识类
Exercise 1
听力原文\答案及解析
Exercise 2
原文、答案及解析
Exercise 3
原文、答案及解析
三、短文
社会生活类
Exercise 1
Exercise 1 听力原文、答案及解析
Exercise 2
Exercise 2 听力原文、答案及解析
Exercise 3
Exercise 3 听力原文、答案及解析
四、短文听写(单词及短语听写)
科普知识类
Exercise 1
Exercise 1 答案及解析
Exercise 1 听力原文
Exercise 2
Exercise 2 答案及解析
Exercise 2 听力原文
Exercise 3
Exercise 3 答案及解析
Exercise 3 听力原文
Test 1
Test 1 听力原文、答案及解析
Test 2
Test 2 听力原文、答案及解析
目录
第一个月 基础篇 / 1
第一章 六级汉译英翻译的基本理论与技巧 / 2
第二章 六级汉译英必备词汇 / 30
第三章 六级汉译英必备语法 / 65
第一个月 学习效果检验 / 213

第二个月 提高篇 / 221
第一章 汉译英精选清讲 / 222
第二个月 学习效果检验 / 282

第三个月 冲刺篇 / 289
第一章 大学英语六级考试翻译部分全真预测题 / 290
第二章 六级翻译全真预测题参考译文及相关词汇 / 300

附录一 2013年12月大学英语六级(CET6)考试样卷
【改革后新题型】/ 327

附录二 大学英语六级词汇表 / 351

文摘
听力导学
一、大学英语教学大纲对大学英语听力能力的一般要求(四级)
2007年修订后的《大学英语课程教学要求》把大学阶段的英语教学要求分为三个层次,即一般要求、较高要求和更高要求。这是我国高等学校非英语专业本科生经过大学阶段的英语学习与实践应当选择达到的标准。一般要求是高等学校非英语专业本科毕业生应达到的基本要求。较高要求或更高要求是为有条件的学校根据自己的办学定位、类型和人才培养目标所选择的标准而推荐的。各高等学校应根据本校实际情况确定教学目标,并创造条件,使那些英语起点水平较高、学有余力的学生能够达到较高要求或更高要求。
三个层次对学生英语听力能力要求如下:
一般要求:
能听懂英语授课,能听懂日常英语谈话和一般性题材的讲座,能听懂语速较慢(每分钟130 ~150词)的英语广播和电视节目,能掌握其中心大意,抓住要点。能运用基本的听力技巧。
掌握的词汇量应达到约4795个单词和700个词组(含中学应掌握的词汇),其中约2000个单词为积极词汇,即要求学生能够在认知的基础上在口头和书面表达两个方面熟练运用的词汇。
较高要求:
能听懂英语谈话和讲座,能基本听懂题材熟悉、篇幅较长的英语广播和电视节目,语速为每分钟150~180词,能掌握其中心大意,抓住要点和相关细节。能基本听懂用英语讲授的专业课程。
掌握的词汇量应达到约6395个单词和1200个词组(包括中学和一般要求应该掌握的词汇),其中约2200个单词(包括一般要求应该掌握的积极词汇)为积极词汇(见附3:《大学英语参考词汇表》)。
更高要求:
听力理解能力:能基本听懂英语国家的广播电视节目,掌握其中心大意,抓住要点。能听懂英语国家人士正常语速的谈话。能听懂用英语讲授的专业课程和英语讲座。
掌握的词汇量应达到约7675个单词和1870个词组(包括中学、一般要求和较高要求应该掌握的词汇,但不包括专业词汇),其中约2360个单词(包括一般要求和较高要求应该掌握的积极词汇)为积极词汇(见附3:《大学英语参考词汇表》)。
二、大学英语四级考试改革介绍及新题型分析
(一)大学英语四、六级考试改革介绍
根据全国大学英语四、六级考试委员会发布的通知,自2013年12月考试起,英语四、六级考试试卷结构和测试题型将有局部变化和调整。
四级和六级的试卷结构、测试内容、测试题型、分值比例和考试时间如下表所示:
试卷结构 测试内容 测试题型 分值比例 考试时间
写作 写作 短文写作 15% 30分钟
听力理解 听力对话 短对话 多项选择 8% 30分钟
长对话 多项选择 7%
听力短文 短文理解 多项选择 10%
短文听写 单词及词组听写 10%
阅读理解 词汇理解 选词填空 5% 40分钟
长篇阅读 匹配 10%
仔细阅读 多项选择 20%
翻译 汉译英 段落翻译 15% 30分钟
总计 100% 130分钟
(二)新题型说明
1. 单词及词组听写
听力题型是这次改革中变化最小的部分,听力理解主要测试学生获取口头信息的能力。录音材料用标准的英式或美式英语朗读,四级语速约每分钟130词,六级约每分钟150词。听力部分分值比例为35%,其中对话占15%,短文占20%。考试时间为30分钟。调整后的四、六级考试大幅度提高了主观题所占分值比例,之前的四、六级考试中,主观题比例仅占20%;在新试题中,主观题比例调整为30%。考试时间从过去的120分钟延长到了130分钟。 听力从原来的20%提高到35%,四级听力部分的原复合式听写由过去的八个单词和三句话的形式,调整为考察十个单词或短语的形式,短文长度及难度不变。要求考生在听懂短文的基础上,用所听到的原文填写空缺的单词或词组,共10题,短文播放三遍,每一个空的得分由过去的不等分值变成每空一分。
2. 长篇阅读
原快速阅读理解调整为长篇阅读理解,篇章长度和难度不变。篇章后附有10个句子,每句一题。每句所含的信息出自篇章的某一段落,要求考生找出与每句所含信息相匹配的段落。有的段落可能对应两题,有的段落可能不对应任何一题。
3. 翻译
原单句汉译英调整为段落汉译英。翻译内容涉及中国的历史、文化、经济、社会发展等。四级长度为140-160个汉字,六级长度为180-200个汉字。
成绩分为总分和单项分。单项分包括:1)听力,2)阅读,3)翻译和写作。
三、2013年12月大学英语四级听力部分真题及答案
同学们可以尝试一下2013年12月英语四级听力部分真题,依据自己的最后得分来进入不同阶段的学习。
Part II Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)
Section A
Directions: In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations. At the end of each conversation, one or more questions will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
1. A) The woman is now working in a kindergarten.
B) The woman is going to major in child education.
C) The man would like to be a high school teacher.
D) The man will soon start a business of his own.
2. A) The furniture has to be rearranged.
B) The video machine has to be checked.
C) The sound equipment has to be set up.
D) The conference room has to be cleaned.
3. A) She is exhausted.
B) She is near-sighted.
C) She cannot go straight home.
D) She cannot finish work in time.
4. A) The woman is too particular about food.
B) The woman should order her food quickly.
C) He would rather have a meal an hour later.
D) He usually prefers ice cream to sandwiches.
5. A) He doesn’t keep his promises.
B) He is always ready to offer help to others.
C) He is not a good mechanic.
D) He spends his spare time doing repairs.
6. A) Sam has a big family to support.
B) Sam is not interested in traveling.
C) The work hours in the travel agency are too long.
D) The pay offered by the travel agency is too low.
7. A) Financial consulting.
B) Product development.
C) International trade.
D) Domestic retailing.
8. A) Take a vacation.
B) Go on a business trip.
C) Make a ticket reservation.
D) Look for a job in Miami.
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the conversation you have heard.
9. A) It is located on Route 18.
B) It is a beautiful little town.
C) It lies seven miles east of Newton.
D) It has an interesting museum.
10. A) They are fifty-five miles apart.
B) They are in opposite directions.
C) They are quite close to each other.
D) They are a long drive from Norwalk.
11. A) They are crowded with tourists.
B) They are connected by Route 7.
C) They have lots of old houses.
D) They have many rare plants.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
12. A) Bring him up to date on the current situation in Milan.
B) Fetch the documents signed by Mr. Gartner.
C) Inform him of the arrangements for his trip in Italy.
D) Accompany Mr. Gartner to the Linate airport.
13. A) About 8:30.
B) About 4:15.
C) About 5:30.
D) About 6:30.
14. A) Gianni Riva at Megastar.
B) Mr. Gartner from Milan.
C) The company’s sales representative.
D) Gavin from the Chamber of Commerce.
15. A) Secretary.
B) Business manager.
C) Saleswoman.
D) Travel agent.
Section B
Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passages and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Passage One
Questions 16 to 19 are based on the passage you have just heard.
16. A) She needed some overseas experience.
B) She wanted to find out more about it.
C) She had a desire to help others.
D) She was interested in farming.
17. A) Carry out a cultural exchange program.
B) Work on an agricultural project.
C) Teach English.
D) Learn Portuguese.
18. A) She could not get the country out of her mind.
B) She found it difficult to secure a job in her own country.
C) She wanted to renew her contact with the Peace Corps.
D) She was invited to work as an English teacher.
19. A) By teaching additional English classes.
B) By doing odd jobs for local institutions.
C) By working part time for the Peace Corps.
D) By writing stories for American newspapers.
Passage Two
Questions 20 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.
20. A) Time spent with friends and family.
B) Time spent working.
C) Time spent exercising.
D) Time spent on leisure activities.
21. A) Reading.
B) Watching TV.
C) Surfing the Web.
D) Eating out.
22. A) Visiting friends.
B) Going to the pub.
C) Gardening.
D) Driving.
Passage Three
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
23. A) McLaughlin’s carelessness resulted in the collision.
B) The car driver was partly responsible for the accident.
C) McLaughlin was talking to his manager while driving.
D) The car driver was trying to avoid hitting a rabbit.
24. A) He did serious damage to a loaded truck.
B) He tore down the company’s main gate.
C) He knocked down several mailboxes.
D) He crashed into a car parked there.
25. A) He will receive retraining.
B) He will have to pay damages.
C) He will be fined heavily.
D) He will lose his job.
Section C
Directions: In this section you will hear a passage three times. When the passage is read for the first time, you should listen carefully for a general idea. When the passage is read for the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks with the exact words you have just heard. Finally, when the passage is read for the third time, You should check what you have written.
When Captain Cook asked the chiefs in Tahiti why they always ate 26. , they replied, “Because it is right.” If we ask Americans why they eat with knives and forks, or why their men wear pants 27. skirts or why they may be married to only one person at a time, we are likely to get 28. and very uninformative answers because it’s right, because that’s the way it’s done, because it’s the 29. . Or even I don’t know. The reason for these and countless other patterns of social behavior is that they are 30. by social norms shared rules or guide lines which prescribe the behavior that is appropriate in a given situation. Norms 31. how people ought to behave under particular circumstances in a particular society. We conform (遵守) to norms so readily that we are hardly aware they 32. . In fact we are much more likely to notice 33. from norms than conformity to them. You will not be surprised if a stranger tried to shake hands when you were introduced, but you might be a little 34. if they bowed, started to stroke you or kissed you on both 35. . Yet each of these other forms of greeting is appropriate in other parts of the world. When we visit another society whose norms are different, we quickly become aware that things we do this way, they do that way.
答案:
1 B 2 C 3 A 4 B 5 A 6 D 7 C 8 A 9 D 10 B
11 C 12 C 13 B 14 D 15 A 16 C 17 B 18 A 19 D 20 D
21 A 22 B 23 A 24 C 25 D
26. apart and alone 27. instead of 28. similar 29. custom 30. controlled
31. define 32. exist 33. departure 34. startled 35. cheeks
2013年12月大学英语四级听力部分文字稿
Part II Listening Comprehension (30 minutes)
Section A
Eight short conversations:
1.?M: After high school, I’d like to go to college and major in business administration.
W: But I’d rather spend my college days finding out how children learn.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
2.W: Is everything ready for the conference?
M: The only thing left to do is to set up the microphones and speakers. They'll be here in a few minutes.
Q: What preparations have yet to be made?
3.W: Is it almost time to go home now? I'm so tired. I can hardly see straight.
M: Just a few more minutes, then we can go.
Q: What is the woman’s problem?
4.W: I’m not sure what I’m in a mood for. Ice cream or sandwiches? They are both really good here.
M: The movie starts in an hour. And we still have to get there and park. So just make a decision.
Q: What does the man mean?
5.W: Tom said he would come to repair our solar heater when he has time.
M: He often says he is willing to help, but he never seems to have time.
Q: What does the man imply about Tom?
6.W: So you know that Sam turns down the job offered by the travel agency.
M: Yes. The hours were convenient. But if he had accepted it, he wouldn’t be able to make ends meet.
Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
7.M: Could you tell me a bit about the business your company is doing?
W: We mainly deal with large volume buyers from western countries and our products have been well received.
Q: What business is the woman’s company doing?
8.W: Yesterday I made reservations for my trip to Miami next month.
M: You must really be looking forward to it. You haven’t had any time off for at least two years.
Q: What is the woman going to do?
Two long conversations:
Conversation One:
M: Excuse me, I need some information about some of the towns near here.
W: What would you like to know?
M: Well, first, I'd like directions to go to Norwalk. I believe there is an interesting museum there. It isn't far, is it?
W: No, not at all. Norwalk is about eighteen miles east of here on Route 7. And you're right. It's a wonderful little museum.
M: Oh good. Now what about Amitsville? I have some friends. I'd like to visit there and I also want to get to Newton. They are near each other, aren't they?
W: Hmm... well, they are actually in opposite directions. Amitsville is northeast. It's about thirty five miles northeast of here.
M: Huh-uh, thirty five miles northeast. And how about Newton?
W: Well, Newton is in the other direction. It's southwest, so it isn't really very close to Amitsville at all and it's a long drive. It's about fifty five miles southwest from here and the road is not at all straight.
M: Fifty five miles southwest! Well, maybe I won't go there this time.
W: I’d recommend visiting Westfield or Great Town. They are both very close. Westfield is just seven miles west of here and Great Town is about five miles south. They are really pretty little towns with lots of old houses and beautiful tree-lined streets.
M: I see. Seven miles west to Westfield and five miles south to Great Town. Good. Well, I think that's all the information I need for a while. Thank you. You've been very helpful.
W: You're welcome, sir. I hope you enjoy your stay.
Questions 9 to 11 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
9. What does the man know about Norwalk?
10. What does the woman say about Amitsville and Newton?
11. What do we learn about Westfield and Great Town?
Conversootlon Two:
M: Err... Sandra, I’ve finished with Mr. Gordon now. Do you think you could pop through and bring me up to date on their arrangements for the Italian trip?
W: Certainly, Mr. Wilkinson. I’ll bring everything with me.
M: Right, take a seat. Now my first meeting is when?
W: Your first meeting is on Monday, 21 at 9 a.m. with Dr. Gucci of Bancos en Piedra in Milan.
M: OK, so can I fly out early Monday morning?
W: Well, there is a flight to Linate Airport which leaves at six thirty London time and gets in at eight thirty Italian time.
M: Yeah, but that only leaves me thirty minutes to clear customs in getting to the city center and it means I have to check in by five thirty, which means leaving home at about four fifteen.
W: I’m afraid so.
M: Hmm... not so keen on that. What’s the program for the rest of that day?
W: It’s quite full, I’m afraid. At eleven, you’re seeing Jeana Rivard at Meg Star and then you’ll have a lunch engagement with Gaven from the Chamber of Commerce at one.
M: Where’s that?
W: You’re meeting him at his office and then he’s taking you somewhere.
M: Good, that sounds fine. What about the afternoon?
W: Well, at three thirty, you’re seeing our sales representative there and then you’re free till the evening.
M: I see. I seem to remember that I’m having a dinner with someone from Bergamo.
W: That’s right. And Mr. Betty from SAP Industries at eight.
Questions 12 to 15 are based on the conversation you have just heard.
12. What would the man like the woman to do?
13. At what time is Mr. Wilkinson going to leave home for the airport?
14. Who is Mr. Wilkinson going to have a lunch with on Monday?
15. What is most probably the woman’s job?
Section B
Passage One
Donna Fredrick’s served with the Peace Corps for two years in Brazil. She joined the Peace Corps after she graduated from the college because she wanted to do something to help other people. She had been brought up on a farm, so the Peace Corps assigned her to an agricultural project. Before she went to Brazil, she studied Portuguese for three months. She also learnt a great deal about its history and culture.
During her two years with the Peace Corps, Donna lived in a village in northeast Brazil. That part of Brazil is very dry and farming is often difficult there. Donna helped the people of the village to organize an irrigation project, and she also advised them on planting crops that didn’t require much water.
When Donna returned to the States, she couldn’t settle down. She tried several jobs, but they seemed very boring to her. She couldn’t get Brazil out of her mind. Finally, one day she got on a plane and went back to Brazil. She wasn’t sure what she’s going to do. She just wanted to be there.
After a few weeks, Donna found a job as an English teacher, teaching five classes a day. Like most of the teachers, she doesn’t make much money. She shares a small apartment with another teacher. And she makes a little extra money by sending stories to newspapers in the States. Eventually she wants to quit teaching and work as a full-time journalist.
Questions 16 to 19 are based on the passage you have just heard.
16. Why did Donna join the Peace Corps after she graduated from college?
17. What was Donna assigned to do in Brazil?
18. Why did Donna go back to Brazil once again?
19. How did Donna make extra money to support herself?
Passage Two
Results of a recent Harry’s poll on free time showed that the average work week for many Americans is 50 hours. With the time spent eating, sleeping and taking care of the household duties, there’s little time left for leisure activities for many Americans. However, having free time to relax and pursue hobbies is important. People need time away from the pressures of study or work to relax and enjoy time with friends and family.
In different countries free time is spent in different ways. The results of a Harry’s poll showed that reading was the most popular spare time activity in the US. This was followed by watching TV. In a UK survey on leisure time activities, watching TV and videos was the most popular. Listening to the radio came second. In a similar survey conducted in Japan, the most popular free time activity was eating out. The second most popular activity was driving. There were also differences in the most popular outdoor pursuits between the three countries. The most popular outdoor activity for Americans was gardening. In the UK, it was going to the pub. In Japan, going to bars ranked eighth in popularity and gardening ranked ninth.
Although people around the world may enjoy doing similar things in their free time, some evidences are suggesting that these interests are changing. In the US, for example, the popularity of computer activities is increasing. Many more people in the States are spending their free time surfing the web, emailing friends or playing games online.
Questions 20 to 22 are based on the passage you have just heard.
20. What is the recent Harry's Poll about?
21. What was the most popular leisure activity in the US?
22. What was the most popular outdoor pursuit in the UK?
Passage 3
On March 13th, while on duty, Charles Mclaughlin, a very careless driver employed by the company Lummis, was involved in another accident. The accident occurred in Riverside California. Not paying attention to his driving, Mclaughlin turned right on main street and 33rd street and hit Volkswagen rabbit. This caused minor damage to his truck and serious damage to the car. On the basis of the police report, the Lummis accident committee correctly determined that Mclaughlin had been quite careless.
As a result of the committee’s conclusion, the branch manager Mr. David Rossi reported that he had talked with Mclaughlin about his extremely poor driving record. Further evidence of Mclaughlin's irresponsibility occurred on May 6th when he was returning from his shift. That day he ran into a roll-up door at the Lummis facility in Valero, causing significant damage to the door. Damage to the truck, however, was minor. Finally, on June 7th, Mclaughlin once again demonstrated his carelessness by knocking down several mail boxes near the edge of the company’s parking lot. There was damage to the mailboxes and minor damage to the truck.
Mr. David Rossi stated that he had spoken with Mclaughlin on several occasions about his driving record. He added that he had warned Mclaughlin that three preventable accidents in one year could lead to his discharge, as indeed it should.
Questions 23 to 25 are based on the passage you have just heard.
23. What did the Lummis accident committee find out about the accident that occurred on March 13th?
24. What did Mclaughlin do on June 7th near the edge of the company’s parking lot?
25. What is most probably going to happen to Mclaughlin?
四、四级听力题型与技巧点拨
听力部分包括短对话、长对话、短文理解和短文听写四个部分。听力测试的分值在四级考试中占35%,录音播放时间为30分钟左右。如何在半小时左右的时间里,有效地对听力短对话精细理解、对长对话和短文的信息进行提取以及在短文听写中对单词的瞬间把握,都是需要考生在平时的训练中区分对待的。熟悉各个部分的题型及掌握一定的听力技巧对提高听力水平将会有很大帮助。
(一)对话
1. 题型介绍
听力对话包括短对话和长对话两个部分,要求考生从所给的四个选项中选出—个最佳答案。短对话共8组,每组为一轮对话和一个问题;长对话有2组,每组为7-8轮对话,后面有3-4个问题。对话部分共15题。每段对话均朗读一遍,每个问题后留有13-15秒的答题时间。
2. 答题技巧
1)预读选项。有效利用播放考试说明的时间浏览一下题目的四个选项,画出关键词,这是做好听力题目的必要前提。考生通过分析四个选项,猜问题,对涉及的话题有个大体的了解,听时会有侧重地去听,由此使自己处于主动地位。
2)把握关键词和关键句。短对话可以通过某个或某些词或短语判断出答案。只要能捕捉到对话中与该话题相关的关键词,往往就可以判断出对话谈论的内容。而长对话是围绕一个中心展开话题的,因此抓住中心很重要。尤其注意表示因果关系、转折关系、对比或对照等方面的词或短语。其次也要注意听关键句,往往会有一些表示建议,反问的句子。另外,提示性的信息也可以是语音语调。在很多情况下,能否正确理解这些提示词语和信息决定了能否正确回答问题。
3)判断相关场景。听力测试设题的目的是考查我们对于对话主要内容的全面把握,不必试图去听清每一个词,重点听主要信息和目的,判断出对话环境对我们回答问题有很大帮助。四级听力常考的场景有:学习场景、工作场景、天气场景、医院场景、租房场景、娱乐场景、餐馆场景、选课场景等。在固定的场景中,其词汇和表达也相对比较固定,所以同学们应在平时注意多积累一些场景中的高频词汇和习惯表达,以提高听力理解能力。
4)边听边做速记, 在听力应试过程中,做些简短的记录,对答题会有所帮助。所记的重点应放在对话中出现的数字、时间、地点、人名上,这些关键信息经常是考题的考点所在。遇到内容较复杂的谈话时,记在不同选项旁的关键词可以帮助我们很快找到正确答案。
(二)短文理解
1. 题型介绍
短文理解部分通常由3篇文章组成,每篇大约240-260个单词,每篇后面有3-4个题目,共10道题,所占分值为10%。每个问题后有13秒的答题时间。短文内容和问题只读一遍。
2.技巧
1)浏览选项。利用读题目指令或两道题目之间的短暂间隙,考生可以根据选项提供的信息推断短文体裁和大致内容,这样在听的过程中,就能更有针对性,从而提高听力的有效性。
2)抓主题句和信息词。抓住一篇文章的主题句,就容易掌握文章的中心思想。要特别注意听清开头和结尾的一两句话,因为开头句与结尾句常常是主题句,概括和归纳了全文的中心。即便不是主题句,也会包含很多信息,理解这些信息有利于考生把握整篇文章。另外,一些连接短文各个句子、表明上下逻辑关系的词,对短文内容如何发展起到信号指示作用;抓住这些信号,对于下文会讲什么内容、能解答什么问题就会心中有数。
3)记录事实。听力材料中出现的时间、数字、地点等信息以及表示原因和转折关系的词汇和句子经常是标志性的出题点所在。在听音过程中,要有目的地去抓听,记录与题目有关的事实,例如时间、地点、人物等。
(三)短文听写
1. 题型介绍
短文听写更强调语言的综合应用能力,不仅要求考生要有很好的语音辨析能力,还要求具备拼写能力、速记能力等。短文听写采用1篇短文,四级的长度为220-250词,要求考生在听懂短文的基础上用所听到的原文填写空缺的单词或词组,共10题,短文播放三遍,属于新题型。题材可以为叙述性、描写性或说明性,难度适中。
2. 技巧
1)预读须先行。因为文章具有一致性和连贯性的特点,听音前对文字材料的快速浏览对完成听写内容是大有裨益的。尤其要关注所给材料的首尾部分以及空格前后的部分,推测空格要求填写单词的词性、单复数、时态语态及可能的词义。
2)听第一遍录音时,尽量对短文形成一个整体印象。听为主,记为辅,单词可采用缩写或只记录开头字母的方式。听第二遍录音,快速记录所缺单词,尽量将其填写完整。听第三遍录音,补全未填部分,核对已填内容。
3)自我检查。考生在写完之后应该根据自己所掌握的语法知识自我检查一下,检查内容大致包括:单复数是否一致、上下文时态是否相配、大小写是否恰当、词尾的变形正确与否、介词搭配或词语用法是否合乎规范、前后语义内容是否通顺等。
四级听力的提高不仅与学生的听力水平有直接的关系,还从一定的程度上反映了学生的综合语言水平。以上介绍的听力技巧是建立在平时听力训练的基础之上的。同学们也应多了解一些有关东西方文化、风土人情方面的知识,这些都对提高英语听力能力有很大帮助。同学们,准备好,让我们开始提高听力之旅吧!
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