Modeling and Analysis With Induction Generators, Third Edition.pdf
The Third Edition features end-of-chapter exercises with simulations and new applications with small hydro power plants. It shows how to include magnetizing inductance saturation in an induction generator (IG) transient model, discusses new electronic forms to minimize the self-excitation capacitors for stand-alone IGs, and compares IGs with doubly-fed IGs, permanent magnet synchronous generators, conventional synchronous generators, and others to aid in selecting a generator for a particular application. It also explores maximum power point tracking methods for IGs used with wind, Magnus, and hydro turbines.
Principles of Renewable Energy Sources and Electric Generation Scope of This Chapter Legal Definitions Principles of Electric Conversion Basic Definitions of Electrical Power Characteristics of the Primary Sources Characteristics of Industrial, Commercial, Residential, Remote Sites, and Public and Rural Energy Selection of the Electric Generator Interfacing Primary Source, Turbine, Generator, and Load Example of a Simple, Integrated Generating and Energy-Storing System Problems and Applicative Simulations References Steady-State Model of the Induction Generator Scope of This Chapter Interconnection and Disconnection of the Electric Distribution Network Robustness of the Induction Generator Natural Protection against Short Circuits Classical Steady-State Representation of the Asynchronous Machine Generated Power Induced Torque Representation of the Induction Generator Losses Efficiency Measurement of the Induction Generator Parameters Blocked Rotor Test (s=1) No Load Test (s=0) Peculiarities of the Induction Machine working as a Generator Interconnected to the Distribution Network The High-Efficiency Induction Generator The Doubly Fed Induction Generator Construction Features of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator Problems and Applicative Simulations References Transient Model of the Induction Generator Scope of This Chapter Representation of the Induction Machine in Transient State State Space-Based Induction Generator Modeling No-Load Representation of the Induction Generator State Equations of SEIG with Resistive Load, RR State Equations of SEIG with a RLC load Output Power and Efficiency Effects of the Magnetizing Inductance Saturation Partition of the SEIG State Matrix with an RLC Load Generalization of the Association of Self-Excited Generators Relationship between Torque and Shaft Oscillation Equation of the Oscillation Transient Simulation of Induction Generators A Feature Problem of the Transient Model of the Induction Generator Effect of RLC Load Connection Loss of Excitation Parallel Connection of Induction Generators How This Chapter Contributed in Solving Typical Problems Problems and Applicative Simulations References The Self-Excited Induction Generator Scope of This Chapter Performance of the Self-Excited Induction Generator Magnetizing Curves and Self-Excitation Mathematical Description of the Self-Excitation Process Series Capacitors and Composed Excitation of the Induction Generator Induction Generator with Static Excitation Energy Storage for Stand-Alone Wind Systems Problems and Applicative Simulations References General Characteristics of the Induction Generator Scope of This Chapter Torque-Speed Characteristics of the Induction Generator Power vs. Current Characteristic Rotor Power Factor in Function of the Rotation Non-Linear Relationship between Air Gap Vg and Magnetizing Im Minimization of the Laboratory Tests Example of Determination of the Magnetizing Curve and the Magnetizing Reactance Voltage Regulation Characteristics of Rotation Problems and Applicative Simulations References Construction Features of the Induction Generators Scope of This Chapter Electromechanical Considerations Optimization of Manufacturing Process High-Efficiency Induction Generator Classes of Design Sizing the Machine Efficiency Issues IG Comparison with Other Types of Generators Problems References Power Electronics for Interfacing Induction Generators Scope of This Chapter Power Semiconductor Devices Power Electronics and Converter Circuits Regulators Inverters Protection and Monitoring Units DC to DC Conversion AC to DC Conversion DC to AC Conversion Single-Phase H-Bridge Inverter Three-Phase Inverter Multi-Step Inverter Multi-Level Inverter Direct AC to AC Conversion Diode Bridge Arrangement Common Emitter Anti-Parallel IGBT, Diode Pair Common Collector Anti-Parallel IGBT, Diode Pair Problems and Applicative Simulations References Scalar Control for Induction Generators Scope of This Chapter Scalar Control Background Scalar Control Schemes Problems and Applicative Simulations References Vector Control for Induction Generators Scope of This Chapter Vector Control for Induction Generators Axis Transformation Space Vector Notation Field Oriented Control Indirect Vector Control Direct Vector Control Problems and Applicative Simulations References Optimized Control for Induction Generators Scope of This Chapter Why Optimizing Induction Generator-Based Renewable Energy Systems Optimization Principles: Optimize Benefit or Minimize Effort Application of HCC for Induction Generators HCC-Based Maximum Power Search Some MPPT Methods for IG used with Wind Turbines FLC-Based Maximum Power Search Fuzzy Control of Induction Generators Description of Fuzzy Controllers Speed Control with the Fuzzy Logic Controller FLC-1 Flux Intensity Control with the Fuzzy Logic Controller FLC-2 Robust Control of Speed Loop with the Fuzzy Logic Controller FLC-3 Experimental Evaluation of Fuzzy Optimization Control Problems and Applicative Simulations References Wound Rotor Induction Generator Scope of This Chapter Features of DFIG Sub- and Super-Synchronous Modes Operation of DFIG Interconnected and Stand-Alone Operation Field-Oriented Control of DFIG Rotor End Converter (REC) Control Harmonic Compensation Stator Flux Orientation Front End Converter Control Active-Reactive Power Control for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Stand-Alone Doubly Fed Induction Generator Problems and Applicative Simulations References Simulation Tools used with Small Electrical Power Plants Scope of This Chapter Design Fundamentals of Small Power Plants Simplified Design of a Small Wind Power Plant Simulation of the Self-Excited Induction Generator in PSpice(R) Formatted Simulation of a Self-Excited Induction Generator in Pascal(R) Simulation of the Steady State Operation of an Induction Generator using Microsoft Excel(R) Simulation of Vector-Controlled Schemes using MATLAB(R)/Simulink(R) Inputs Outputs Indirect Vector Control Direct Vector Control with Rotor Flux Direct Vector Control with Stator Flux An Evaluation of the MATLAB/Simulink Program Simulation of a Self-Excited Induction Generator in PSim Simulation of a Self-Excited Induction Generator in MATLAB Simulation of a Self-Excited Induction Generator in C Problems References Applications of Induction Generators in Alternative Sources of Energy Voltage and Frequency Control of Induction Generators Application of Electronic Load Controllers Wind Power with Variable Speed Run-of-River Hydro Generation Small Hydro Power Plants Wave and Tidal Powers Stirling Engine Power and Co-Generation Danish Concept Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) Pump-as-Turbine (PAT) Pumped-Storage Plants or Back-Pumping Constant Frequency, Constant Speed, and Constant Power Linear Induction Generator Stand Alone Operation Distributed Generation References Economics of Induction Generator Based Renewable Systems Scope of This Chapter Optimal and Market Price of Energy under Regulatory Environment World Climate Change related to Power Generation Economics of Renewable Sources and Hydrogen Energy versus Environment Appraisal of Investment Concept Selection and Optimization of Investment Future Directions Problems Appendices Principles of Fuzzy Control C Simulation Program Pascal Simulation Program Power Tracking Curve Based Algorithm for Wind Energy Systems References Index