Essential Criminology.pdf

Essential Criminology.pdf


In the fourth edition of Essential Criminology, authors Mark M. Lanier, Stuart Henry, and Desire J.M. Anastasia build upon this best-selling critical review of criminology, which has become essential reading for students of criminology in the 21st century. Designed as an alternative to overly comprehensive, lengthy, and expensive introductory texts, Essential Criminology is, as its title implies, a concise overview of the field. The book guides students through the various definitions of crime and the different ways crime is measured. It then covers the major theories of crime, from individual-level, classical, and rational choice to biological, psychological, social learning, social control, and interactionist perspectives. In this latest edition, the authors explore the kind of criminology that is needed for the globally interdependent twenty-first century. With cutting-edge updates, illustrative real-world examples, and new study tools for students, this text is a necessity for both undergraduate and graduate courses in criminology.

Praise for previous editions: "Comprehensive, accessible, engaging, and concise, covering key theories from conservative to critical with very useful early chapters on defining criminology, crime, and crime data. Each subsequent chapter includes a succinct overview of a set of core theories, an illuminating section on limitations and policy implications, and a precise summary of key points (including basic idea, human nature, society and social order, causality, criminal justice policy and practice, and evaluation). Unlike many texts, this inclusion provides the student and the well-versed abundant opportunities for engagement and critical dialogue. No text on theories of crime on the market can compete with the extensive and precise coverage of core theories in crime causation along with the seductive encouragement to actively engage the respective theories. Essential Criminology is also futuristic, providing the grounds for constructive critical engagement with emerging perspectives. This will not only appeal to students but also to those well-versed seeking a comprehensive, critical reference text. Three cheers for the innovative and comprehensive exposition and critique!" --Dr. Dragan Milovanovic, Justice Studies, Northeastern Illinois University "Essential Criminology is essential reading for anybody-student, scholar, or lay person-who is curious about crime and the world in the 21st century. In this new and revised edition, Lanier and Henry incorporate significant changes that are occurring in an age of globalization. Changes that even since the first edition was published in 1997 are affecting the way in which we see and study crime today. Employing an historical and comparative framework, these authors have also expanded upon their original theses and analyses for examining the evolving field of criminology, yielding what I would contend is the most inclusive and balanced theory text available." --Gregg Barak, Eastern Michigan University "Essential Criminology is a wonderful introductory textbook, and should one desire a more in-depth study of criminology, it offers 43 pages of reference materials." --Wisconsin Lawyer "Represents the first important shift in the content and presentation of introductory criminology textbooks in over 29 years. Students at the college level receive an introduction to the past wealthy of criminological thought as well as new ideas on the topic. This simplifies arguments and perspectives yet contains all the overview of important issues central to criminology theory. --The Bookwatch "Essential Criminology represents a significant advancement in our approach to educating students about the definition and use of different criminological perspectives. By presenting the major theoretical perspectives in simplified language and by the use of modern-day examples and current research findings, students are able to develop a more meaningful understanding for the role that theory plays in the development and implementation of crime policy." --Lynette Lee-Sammns, California State University, Scaramento "Essential Criminology is the first important shift in the content and presentation of introductory criminology textbooks in over two decades. Survey textbooks should do two things: teach students the basics and discuss where future directions are leading us. The majority do the former but ignore the latter. Lanier and Henry accomplish both. Comprehensive and future-oriented, the book provides the introductory student the broad brush of criminological thought within the context of new and expanded ideas. Students will enjoy Essential Criminology because it makes difficult concepts easy to understand without leveling down, uses examples akin to today's student's experience, and carries the theme of crime as harm in any kind across every page of every chapter. A first-rate textbook." --John Ortiz Smykla, University of Alabama "Lanier and Henry have written a superb introductory text. Students and instructors will find Essential Criminology engrossing from start to finish. Thee authors straightforward yet comprehensive treatment of crime reflects the multidisciplinary nature of criminological theory and practice as it provides readers with a strong foundation for the study of crime." --Gregg Barak, Eastern Michigan University "This is the book I have been searching for for years--a criminology text which focuses on theory, is clear, concise, and affordable. At the same time it is substantive and comprehensive." --Barbara Lavin, Marist College

Mark M. Lanier is professor and the Dean's Assistant in the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Alabama. He is the author or editor of 12 books on crime and research methods, including Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology: A Mixed Methods Approach (Oxford University). Stuart Henry is professor of Criminal Justice and Director of the School of Public Affairs at San Diego State University. He is the author of over twenty books including the classic work, The Hidden Economy. Desire J. M. Anastasia is assistant professor of sociology at Metropolitan State University of Denver.

List of Tables and Figures List of Inset Boxes Preface and Acknowledgments 1 What Is Criminology? The Study of Crime, Criminals, and Victims in a Global Context Globalization What is Criminology? Is Criminology Scientific? Is Criminology a Discipline? What is Comparative and Global Criminology? What is Victimology? Summary 2 What is Crime? Defining the Problem Legal Definition Who defines Crime? Consensus and Conflict Approaches Consensus Approaches Social Context Conflict Approaches Beyond Consensus and Conflict Hagan's Pyramid of Crime From Hagan's Pyramid to the Prism of Crime Crime Prism Integrating the Dimension Application of the Prism to the Problem of School Violence The Paucity of the School Violence Concept Toward an Expansive Integrated Concept of School Violence The Pyramidal Analysis Revealing the Dimensions of School Violence Causal Implications of the Prismatic Analysis of School Violence Policy Implications of the Prismatic Analysis of School Violence Dispute Resolution andRestorative Justice Other Implications Crimes of the Powerless Crimes of the Powerful Summary 3 Classical, Neoclassical, and Rational Choice Theories The Preclassical Era The Classical Reaction Cesare Beccaria Jeremy Bentham Limitations of Classical Theory Neoclassical Revisions Criminal Justice Implications: The Move to "Justice" Theory The Conservative Law-and-Order Turn Determinate or Mandantory Sentencing Three-Strikes Laws Incapacitation Deterrence and the Death Penalty Redefining Rational Choice: Situational Factors and Routine Activities Theory Policy Applications of Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories Conceptual and Empirical Limitations: What the Research Shows Evidence on the Rational Choice Decision-Making Process Evidence on Routine Activities and Crime Summary and Conclusion Summary Chart: Classical, Rational Choice and Routine Activities Theories 4 "Born to Be Bad": Biological, Physiological and Biosocial Theories of Crime Biological and Positivistic Assumptions The Social Context of Criminal Anthropology The Born Criminal Early U.S. Family-Type and Body-Type Theories Contemporary Biological Perspectives Twin Studies and Adoption Studies Biosocial Criminology: A Developmental Explanation of Crime Chromosomes, Nervous System, Attention Deficit Disorder, Hormones and the Brain The Importance of Neurotransmitters in Relation to Depression and Aggression Recent Directions in Biosocial Criminology Conceptual and Empirical Limitations Criminal Justice Policy Implications Summary and Conclusion Summary Chart: Biological Theory 5 Criminal Minds: Psychiatric and Psychological Explanations for Crime From Sick Minds to Abnormal Behavior Shared Psychological Assumptions The Psychoanalytic Approach Blaming the Mother: Attachment Theory Maladaptive Coping Strategies: Frustration-Aggression Theory The Limitations and Policy Implications of Psychoanalytical Theory Trait-Based Personality Theories The Limitations and Policy Implications of Trait-Based and Evolutionary Psychology Behavioral, Situational, and Social Learning Theories Behavioral Learning Theory Social Learning and Modeling Theory Limitations and Policy Implications of Learning Theory Cognitive Theories Limitations and Policy Implications of Cognitive Theory Ecological Psychology Evolutionary Psychology Limitations and Policy Implications of Ecological and Evolutionary Psychology Summary and Conclusion Summary Chart: Psychological Theories of Crime 6 Learning Criminal Behavior: Social Process Theories Common Themes and Different Assumptions Sutherland's Differential Association Theory Empirical Support and Limitations of Differential Association Theory Modifying Differential Association: Differential Reinforcement Theory and Differential Identification Theory Policy Implications of Differential Association and Social Learning Theory Limitations of Differential Support Theory Cognitive Social Learning Neutralization Theory: Learning Rationalizations as Motives Drifting In and Out of Delinquency: Matza and Sykes's Neutralization Theory Bandura's Moral Disengagement Theory Policy Implications of Neutralization and Moral Disengagment Theory Limitations and Evaluation of Neutralization Explanations Summary and Conclusion Summary Chart: Social Process Theories 7 Failed Socialization: Control Theory, Social Bonds, and Labeling Control Theory: Learning not to Commit Crime Kinds of Social Control Theory: Broken Bonds or Failure to Bond? Hirschi's Social Control Theory Gottfredson and Hirschi's Self-Control Theory Policy Implications of Control Theory Evaluation of Social Control and Self-Control Theory Labeling Theory: A Special Case of Failed Socialization? Symbolic Interactionist roots of Labeling theory Lemert's Primary and Secondary Deviance Becker's Interactionist Theory: Social Reaction and Master Status Goffman's Stigma and Total Institutions Braithwaite's Reintegrative Shaming Matsueda's Informal Negative Labeling and Differential Social Control Policy Implications of Labeling Theory Evaluation of Labeling Theory Summary and Conclusion Summary Chart: Control Theory and Labeling Theory


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