改变心理学的四十项研究.pdf

改变心理学的四十项研究.pdf
 

书籍描述

内容简介
改变心理学的四十项研究》从历史的角度展示了心理学史上40 项经典研究,以及由其所开拓的新领域的研究。本版较之前一版,新增加了两个全新的重要研究,更新了56 篇参考文献。对上一版中保留下来的38 个研究,更新了最新的评价。
全书分为10 个心理学专题,包括“生物学与人类行为”、“知觉与意识”、“学习和条件反射”、“智力、认知和记忆”、“人的发展”、“情绪和动机”、“人格”、“精神病理学”、“ 心理治疗”和“社会心理学”。每个专题下选取了4 项研究。每项研究的内容包含:题目、作者、原始出处、问题提出的背景、理论假设、研究方法、结果、讨论、意义与批评、近期应用和

编辑推荐
作者精挑细选了心理学历史上的40个最经典的研究;这些研究改变心理学的历史和现状;作者对每个研究的来龙去脉娓娓道来;总结了每个研究的重要性、争议及最新应用。

名人推荐
对于初学心理学的人来说,大多数人很想读一读心理学的经典研究,充实和提高自己。但是,在具体的实践过程中,常常是将经典研究读了一半,大部分人就放弃了。因为每一项研究,既包括了许多专业术语,又包括了理论假设、实验方法、实验设计、数据的统计分析、结果的分析讨论和结论等等,真是“太难了”,让读它的人感到眼花缭乱、无所适从。 然而,《改变心理学的40项研究》一书的出现,使一切发生了改变。 作者不仅是一位心理学家,而且也是位优秀的教育家和作家,用自己简练的思维和那支“生花的”妙笔,将“枯燥的”心理学经典研究变成了一个又一个“引人入胜的”故事。阅读此书,会将你逐渐带入神秘的心理世界,在揭开心理学神秘面纱的同时,也会让你感到心理学将不再“枯燥”、不再“远离实际”,也不再“高不可攀”。同时,阅读这些经典研究,还会让你折服于心理学大师们的绝妙思路和天才的想法。
——天津师范大学心理与行为研究院 (博士、教授、博土生导师) 白学军


霍克的这部著作的确令人赞叹!它不仅选择了合适的研究,还为学生提供了一份有用的教学工具……霍克的书融合了读者的兴趣,同时文笔也很优美简洁……这本书揭示了心理学研究背后的真实故事,对每一个经典研究娓娓道来,内容全面,有趣易读。既适合心理学的入门学习者,也适用于对心理学感兴趣的读者。
——米斯迪•希尔 耶鲁大学心理学教授
本书的主要优势在于,罗杰•霍克以一种独到清晰的文风,总结了心理学史上最重要的一些研究。
——琳达•皮尔斯 曼多纳大学心理学教授
心理学是一门科学,是研究人的心理规律的知识体系的科学,有其发生发展的历史,有着其历史上值得总结、学习和发扬的一系列研究。我翻阅这本书,被其内容所吸引,书中介绍的研究都是在心理学史上非常有名的原创性研究。本书既是一部高水平的学术著作,又是一部通俗的心理学读本,具有科普性。因为全书内容生动、形式活泼,可读性强,所以本书不仅适合心理学界的同事欣赏,也值得广大心理学爱好者浏览。
——林崇德 中国心理学会理事长 北京师范大学教授、博士生导师

作者简介
罗杰•霍克(Roger R. Hock) 博士是美国门多西诺学院(Mendocino College)的心理学教授,在心理学方面有多年教学经验。在教学过程中,他发现大多数心理学教科书因篇幅有限,无法详细介绍作为学科基础的研究过程,于是筹备本书以填补教科书与科学研究之间的沟壑。1992年出版本书的第1版之后,好评如潮且备受关注。霍克站在学科发展的高度,纵观心理学研究的发展历程,精心筛选出对心理学发展影响最大、文献引用较多且至今仍受关注的40项研究,范围涵盖广泛,介绍全面详实。

目录
CHAPTER I BIOLOGY AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR 1
READING 1: ONE BRAIN OR TWO? 1
READING 2: MORE EXPERIENCE = BIGGER BRAIN 11
READING 3: ARE YOU A “NATURAL?” 19
READING 4: WATCH OUT FOR THE VISUAL CLIFF! 27

CHAPTER II PERCEPTION AND CONSCIOUSNESS 35
READING 5: TAKE A LONG LOOK 36
READING 6: TO SLEEP, NO DOUBT TO DREAM . . . 42
READING 7: UNROMANCING THE DREAM 49
READING 8: ACTING AS IF YOU ARE HYPNOTIZED 56

CHAPTER III LEARNING AND CONDITIONING 65
READING 9: IT’S NOT JUST ABOUT SALIVATING DOGS! 65
READING 10: LITTLE EMOTIONAL ALBERT 72
READING 11: KNOCK WOOD! 78
READING 12: SEE AGGRESSION . . . DO AGGRESSION! 85

CHAPTER IV INTELLIGENCE, COGNITION, AND MEMORY 93
READING 13: WHAT YOU EXPECT IS WHAT YOU GET 93
READING 14: JUST HOW ARE YOU INTELLIGENT? 100
READING 15: MAPS IN YOUR MIND 110
READING 16: THANKS FOR THE MEMORIES! 117

CHAPTER V HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 126
READING 17: DISCOVERING LOVE 126
READING 18: OUT OF SIGHT, BUT NOT OUT OF MIND 134
READING 19: HOW MORAL ARE YOU? 143
READING 20: IN CONTROL AND GLAD OF IT! 150

CHAPTER VI EMOTION AND MOTIVATION 158
READING 21: A SEXUAL MOTIVATION . . . 158
READING 22: I CAN SEE IT ALL OVER YOUR FACE! 168
READING 23: LIFE, CHANGE, AND STRESS 175
READING 24: THOUGHTS OUT OF TUNE 183

CHAPTER VII PERSONALITY 191
READING 25: ARE YOU THE MASTER OF YOUR FATE? 192
READING 26: MASCULINE OR FEMININE . . . OR BOTH? 199
READING 27: RACING AGAINST YOUR HEART 210
READING 28: THE ONE, THE MANY 217

CHAPTER VIII PSYCHOPATHOLOGY 227
READING 29: WHO’S CRAZY HERE, ANYWAY? 227
READING 30: YOU’RE GETTING DEFENSIVE AGAIN! 235
READING 31: LEARNING TO BE DEPRESSED 242
READING 32: CROWDING INTO THE BEHAVIORAL SINK 249

CHAPTER IX PSYCHOTHERAPY 258
READING 33: CHOOSING YOUR PSYCHOTHERAPIST 258
READING 34: RELAXING YOUR FEARS AWAY 264
READING 35: PROJECTIONS OF WHO YOU ARE 271
READING 36: PICTURE THIS! 278

CHAPTER X SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 286
READING 37: A PRISON BY ANY OTHER NAME . . . 287
READING 38: THE POWER OF CONFORMITY 295
READING 39: TO HELP OR NOT TO HELP 300
READING 40: OBEY AT ANY COST? 308

AUTHOR INDEX 318
SUBJECT INDEX 322

文摘
NEW TO THE SIXTH EDITION
This sixth edition of Forty Studies offers numerous noteworthy and substantive changes and additions. I have added two of the most influential studies in the history of psychology about how we perceive the world. The first is Robert Fantz’s revolutionary discovery of an ingenious method to allow us to study what very young infants “know” (from 1961). The second, Philip Zimbardo’s famous Stanford Prison Study (from the early 1970s) focuses on the powerful and controlling forces some situations can exert over our behavior.
In addition, the Recent Applications sections near the end of the readings have been updated. These sections sample the numerous recent citations of the 40 studies into the 21st century. The 40 studies discussed in this book are referred to in over 1000 research articles every year! A small sampling of those articles is briefly summarized throughout this edition to allow you to experience the ongoing influence of these 40 studies that changed psychology.
All these recently cited studies are fully referenced at the end of each reading along with other relevant sources. As you read through them, you will be able to appreciate the breadth and richness of the contributions still being made by the 40 studies that comprise this book.
Over the three years since completing the fifth edition, I have continued to enjoy numerous conversations with, and helpful suggestions from, colleagues in many branches of psychological research about potential changes in the selection of studies for this new edition. Two studies I have for some time considered including have been mentioned frequently by fellow researchers, so I have added them in this edition. Each of these two newly incorporated studies, in their own significant ways, expanded our perceptions of two very basic aspects of human nature and added to our knowledge of the complexity and diversity of the human experience.
One of the newly added studies in this edition provided a window into the perceptual and thinking abilities of infants. Of course, behavioral scientists have known for decades that infants’ behaviors in relation to the world around them change and develop quickly in many ways. But just what do babies know? How do they think? How skilled are they at perceiving and processing events in their environment? You can imagine this is a difficult research challenge to overcome because infants cannot talk to you about what is going on in their brains. Instead, researchers must infer what infants perceive and how they think from their observable behaviors. In essence, this was how the famous Swiss psychologist, Jean Piaget, who is discussed in Chapter V of this book, formed his theories of early cognitive development in preverbal infants. In the early 1960s, Robert L. Fantz discovered a new way of allowing us to peer inside the perceptions of infants: looking at what they are looking at. It turns out that even very young infants prefer to look at certain objects or events over others. By measuring this behavior, referred to as preferential looking, researchers have been able to study infants’ knowledge and perception in many and varied contexts.
This methodology, along with some enhancements to it (also pioneered by Fantz), remains today, nearly 50 years later, the most widely employed technique when psychologists and others wish to study the perceiving, thinking, and knowing processes of infants.
The second study added to this new edition is one of the most wellknown research undertakings in the history of psychology. Many would argue, and rightly so, that perhaps it should have been a mainstay of this book from the beginning. It is Philip Zimbardo’s famous “Stanford Prison Study.” That said, the historical timing is perfect to include this study now because a renewed interest has arisen in this study and the inferences drawn from it over the past several years, due to the high news-profile prisoner scandals in Iraq and various U.S. prisoner policies relating to the ”War on Terror.” In basic psychological theory, two forces determine our behavior in a given situation: our internal, dispositional factors (that is, who we are) and the influences of the situation in which we are behaving. In his simulated prison study, Zimbardo set out to examine how ordinary people’s behavior might change when placed in a situation that carries with it a great deal of inherent power, in this case, a prison.
All the studies, regardless of vintage, discussed in the upcoming pages have one issue in common: research ethics. One of the most important building blocks of psychological science is a strict understanding and adherence to a clear set of professional ethical guidelines in any research involving humans or animals. Let’s consider briefly the ethical principles social scientists work
diligently to follow as they make their discoveries.

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