Toxinology: Clinical Toxinology.pdf
In recent years, the field of Toxinology has expanded substantially. On the one hand it studies venomous animals, plants and micro organisms in detail to understand their mode of action on targets. While on the other, it explores the biochemical composition, genomics and proteomics of toxins and venoms to understand their three interaction with life forms (especially humans), development of antidotes and exploring their pharmacological potential. Therefore, Toxinology has deep linkages with biochemistry, molecular biology, anatomy and pharmacology. In addition, there is a fast developing applied subfield, clinical toxinology, which deals with understanding and managing medical effects of toxins on human body. Given the huge impact of toxin-based deaths globally and the potential of venom in generation of drugs for so-far incurable diseases (for example, Diabetes, Chronic Pain), the continued research and growth of the field is imminent. This has led to the growth of research in the area and the consequent scholarly output by way of publications in journals and books. Despite this ever growing body of literature within biomedical sciences, there is still no all-inclusive reference work available that collects all of the important biochemical, biomedical and clinical insights relating to Toxinology. The Handbook of Toxinology aims to address this gap and cover the field of Toxinology comprehensively.
Prof P. Gopalakrishnakone is a world leader in the characterization of the structure and function of animal and plant toxins and chemical poisons, which contain highly specific and biologically active components. He has contributed significantly to the body of knowledge regarding the anatomy of snake venom glands and the development of drug candidates from animal toxins. Prof Gopal pioneered the development of the NUS Venom and Toxin Research Programme, which has put NUS at the forefront of toxin research internationally. The technology platform that has been built over the years under the Venom and Toxin Research Programme, coupled with its extensive library of protein and peptides, has enabled Prof Gopal and his team to complete the discovery process of lead candidates in time and to transfer valuable supplementary information to the next discovery steps involving profiling and optimization of lead candidates. The objective is to characterize the venom components and natural toxins at a molecular level and identify promising compounds amenable to the development of novel human therapeutics. Prof Gopal's lab has identified over twenty peptides with unique medical indications from venom-based proteins with some already under development as therapeutics. His research studies includes structure function studies (toxin detection, biosensors, antitoxins and neutralization factors), toxicogenomics and expression studies, antimicrobial peptides from venoms and toxins and PLA2 inhibitors as potential drug candidate for inflammatory diseases. The techniques he employs include quantum dots to toxinology, computational biology, microarrays and protein chips. He has patented analgesic peptide, anti inflammatory peptide as well as anti rheumatoid arthritis peptides. He is exploring various possibilities of delivery systems for these peptides to target sites and administration of these peptides orally, transdermally, ocular and injections.Prof Gopal has over 100 international peer-reviewed papers in venom and toxin research, drug discovery, biosensors and toxinogenomics. His research awards include the Outstanding University Researcher Award from the National University of Singapore (1998); Ministerial Citation, NSTB Year 2000 Award in Singapore; and the Research Excellence Award from the Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore (2003). His awards in teaching include, Faculty Teaching Excellence Award 2003/4 & NUS Annual Teaching Excellence Award 2003/4. He also received the Faculty Teaching Excellence Award in 2009/10 and the Annual Teaching Excellence Award, NUS FOR 2009/10. He is the President of International Society on Toxinology till 2012 and is a member of the editorial board of Toxicon, the official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. Abul Faiz, MBBS, FCPS, FRCP, PhD, a professor of medicine is a former administrative chief of the Dhaka Medical College, former Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Dhaka and was Director General of Health Services of the Govt. of Bangladesh. Professor Faiz is a member of the World Health Organization Malaria Treatment Guideline Committee, the National Steering Committee for the elimination of Kala Azar, Bangladesh, and Regional Technical Advisor for malaria, SEARO WHO. Currently he is the President, Bangladesh Association for Advancement of Tropical Medicine (BAATM), and Toxicology Society of Bangladesh (TSB). He is member of the Board of Drugs for the Neglected Diseases Initiative (DNDi); International Advisory Board, Davidson's Principles & Practice of Medicine; editorial board, Asian Neurology, and Journal of Bangladesh Society of Medicine. He has been involved as principal investigator in key clinical studies on malaria. He has the credit of publication of several hundred articles in peer reviewed journal. Christeine Ariaranee Gnanathasan, MBBS, Mphil (Col), MD (Col), MRCP (UK), FRCP (Lond), is Professor in Medicine in the Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and Consultant Physician to the University Medical Unit, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo. Professor Gnanathasan is involved in teaching activities in the faculty as well as patient care in the University Medical Unit, National Hospital of Sri Lanka. Abdulrazaq Garba Habib, MBBS, MSc Epid [Lond], MRCP (UK), FWACP, FAMS (Infect Dis), FRCP [Lond], CTH(TH), is an infectious and tropical diseases physician and epidemiologist. He is the former Dean Faculty of Medicine and the current Provost of the College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano and Consultant in Infectious & Tropical Diseases at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital Kano, Nigeria. He hails from Kano, Nigeria, and is happily married with children. Ravindra Fernando, MBBS, MD, FCCP, FCGP, FRCP(London), FRCP (Glasgow), FRCP (Edinburgh), FRCPath (UK) and DMJ (London), is the chair and senior professor of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Chen-Chang Yang, MD, MPH, DrPH, is currently an Associate Professor and the Chair of Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences at the School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan. He is also an Attending Physician and the Director of the Division of Clinical Toxicology & Occupational Medicine at the Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan. Moreover, he is the Director of the National Poison Control Center in Taiwan.
Animal Toxin Envenomation in South Cone of America.- Antisera.- Bees and Wasp Envenomation.- Centipede Venom I.- Centipede Venom II.- Clinical Uses of Snake Antivenoms.- Complications of Hematotoxic Snake Bites in India.- Developing Snake Antivenom Sera by Genetic Immnization: A Review.- Disability and Impairment Following Snakebite in Africa.- Diversity and Distribution of the Medically Important Snakes of India.- Envenomations by Exotic Snakes and Other Venomous Pets.- Envenomations, Snakes, Jelly Fish.- Epidemiology of Snake Envenomation in Taiwan.- Food Poisoning in Bangladesh.- Haematoxic Snake Bites in India.- Historical Review (of Snake Venom).- Management of Snake Envenomation in Taiwan.- Mushroom Poisoning.- Natural Toxin .- Envenomation in Bali.- Natural Toxin Envenomation in Papua New Guinea.- Natural Toxin.- Envenomation in Taiwan.- Natural Toxin Envenomation in Vietnam.- Pathophysiology and Treatment of Envenomation by European Vipers.- Plants Poisoning: Bangladesh Perspective.- Poisoning Related to Anticholinergic Plants and Herbs in Taiwan.- Poisonings and Natural Toxins in New Zealand.- Poisonous Mushrooms.- Puffer Fish Poisoning: Bangladesh Perspective.- Kidney Injury and Animal Toxins.- Review on Natural Toxin Envenomation in Peru.- Scorpion Envenomation.- Snake Envenomation in Panama.- Snake Bite Envenoming in Latin America and the Caribbean.- Snake Bites in Columbia.- Snake Bites in Tamil Nadu.- Snake Envenomation and Treatment in India.- Snake Envenomation in Bangladesh.- Snake Venom Detection Kit (SVDK): Update on Current Challenges.- Snake Venoms and Scorpion Venom Research in the Middle East: A Review.- Snakebite in the Pediatric Population.- Socioeconomic Aspects of Snakebite in Africa and Tropics.-Spectrum of Presentation and Treatment of Neurotoxic Snakebite.- Tetrodotoxin Poisonings in Taiwan.- Venomous Snakes and Envenomation in Brunei.- Venomous Snakes and Snakebite in India.- Venomous Snakes and Envenomation in Nepal.- Venomous Snakes and Envenomation in Senegal.- Venomous Snakes and Snake Envenomation in Nigeria.- Venomous Snakes of Pakistan.- Venomous Snakes of Peninsula Malaysia and Borneo.- Viper Venom and Hemostasis.