Human Smuggling and Border Crossings.pdf
Graphic narratives of tragedies involving the journeys of irregular migrants trying to reach destinations abroad are common in the media and are blamed almost invariably on human smuggling facilitators, described as rapacious members of highly structured underground transnational criminal organizations, who take advantage of migrants and prey upon their vulnerability. This book questions these assumptions and asks: who are the men and women behind the journeys of irregular migrants worldwide? How and why do they enter the human smuggling market? How are they organized? How do they understand their roles in the process of transnational migration? How do they explain the violence and victimization so many migrants face while in transit? This book contributes to the current scholarship on migration by proving a window into the lives and experiences of those behind the facilitation of irregular border crossing journeys. Based on fieldwork conducted among coyotes in Arizona - the main point of entry for irregular migrants in the United States by the turn of the 21st Century - this project goes beyond traditional narratives of victimization and financial exploitation. The book will be suitable for students and academics involved in the study of crime and trafficking, as well as sociologists interested in citizenship and migration.
Gabriella E. Sanchez is an anthropologist by training and a graduate of Arizona State University's Justice and Social Inquiry Program. Gabriella's research interests include borders, migration and crime. She has conducted fieldwork along the U.S.-Mexico Border, and in Central America, North Africa and the Middle East, where she has documented the experiences of the men and women involved in drug and human smuggling operations as traffickers/smugglers. A Boren and a Fulbright fellow, Gabriella was also a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Maryland's Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) and a visiting lecturer on Gender and Migration at Wellesley College. Gabriella is currently a Research Fellow at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia.
Introduction: Among Coyotes 1. On Borders, Smugglers and the Imagination 2. Coyotes in the era of enforcement: Arizona's human smuggling market and the criminalization of migration 3. "Together as a family": the nature and structure of smuggling 4. "I am not a pollero": facilitators' reflections on smuggling 5. Gendering smuggling: women and the facilitation of extralegal border crossings 6. Conceptualizing violence in smuggling Conclusions.