Climate Change Effect on Crop Productivity.pdf
This book analyses the global consequences to crop yields, production, and risk of hunger of linked socio-economic and climate scenarios. Potential impacts of climate change are estimated for used to evaluate consequent changes in global cereal production, cereal prices and the number of people at risk from hunger. The crop yield results elucidate the complex regional patterns of projected climate variables, CO2 effects, and agricultural systems that contribute to aggregations of global crop production.
Climate change vis-a-vis agriculture: indian and global view implications, abatement, adaptation and trade off Sumit Chakravarty, Anju Puri* and Gopal Shukla Introduction Agriculture As A Contributor Global Trends Regional Trends Global Agricultural Land Use Change And Implication Climate Change Impacts Impacts On Agriculture Globally On India Abatement/Mitigation Cropland Management Grazing Land Management And Pasture Improvement Co-Benefits And Tradeoffs Of Mitigation Options Agricultural Ghg Mitigation Potential Conclusion Climate Change and Agromet Advisory Services in Indian Agriculture HS Bhadoria and RS Sengar Introduction Projected impacts of climate change on Indian agriculture Adaptation and mitigation framework: Need to consider emerging scenario Why agro-meteorology advisory services required in India? Role of weather forecasting in agricultural management Development history of weather forecasting based agro advisory service Major Aspects of Agro-Advisory service Future Strategies Crop Modeling for Agriculture Production and Management Dr Padmakar Tripathi and Arvind Kumar Introduction Types of Crop Models: Statistical models: Simulation Models: DSSAT Crop Models: Role of Crop Modeling in Climate Change Studies: Conclusion Global Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture, Forestry and Soils RS Sengar Kalpana Sengar and RS Kureel Introduction Effect of global climate change on crops The Highly Refined Sensitivity Analysis Combining Network Data Sets With Network Models Improved Pastures And Rangelands Effects Of Global Change On Multi-Species Cropping Systems Experimental Studies On The Relationship Between Plant-Based Diversity And Complexity And System Sustainability Modelling Complex Agricultural Systems Long-Term Agricultural Experiments And Databases Effects Of Global Change On Managed Forests Research On Forest Ecosystems Within Gcte Conclusion Nanotechnological Interventions for Mitigating Global Warming Anjali Pande, Madhu Rawat, Rajeev Nayan, S K Guru and Sandeep Arora Introduction Impact of climate change on crop production Mitigation strategies for reducing crop productivity losses Genetic engineering as a possible alternative The Indian scenario Nanotechnology as an alternative to gm crops Nanotechnology in agriculture Applications of nanotechnology Crop improvement Gene delivery Nanotechnology in disease diagnostics Nanotechnology in pest control Nanotechnology for mitigating climate change Nanoparticles for environmental remediation Conclusion Role of biotechnology in climate resilient agriculture Pradeep K Jain, Pooja Choudhary and Dinesh K Sharma Introduction Industrial agriculture and the climate change Biotechnology for climate change mitigation and crop adaptation Biotechnology for climate change mitigation Biotechnology for crop adaptation Adaptation to Abiotic Stresses Adaptation to Biotic stresses Conclusion Climate Change Effect on Sugarcane Productivity Kalpana Sengar Rakesh Singh Sengar and Vivekanand Pratap Rao Introduction Present scenario Sugarcane cycle Contribution to economy Crop profile Yield Gaps Production constraint Demand for sugar and allied products The challenge of climate change Conclusion Global warming impact on rice crop productivity D P Singh Introduction Global warming Global warming and rice productivity Land and water resources for rice Salinity, flooding and rice Water shortage and rice productivity Global warming and its impact on pests, diseases and weeds Strategies for mitigating effect of global warming on rice production Conclusion Effects Raising Temperatures On Growth And Yields Of On Crop Plants RS Sengar, Kalpana Sengar Introduction Mechanism for heat tolerance Biochemical Process Effect of high temperature on growth and yield Thermal stability of cell membrane Heat Shock protein Photosynthesis and high temperature stress High respiration response to CO Crop growth Development Crop Growth Phase Longterm effect of high temperature on crop Conclusion Impact of Climate Change on Indian Agriculture Dr Samarendra Mahapatra Introduction Climate change impacting agriculture in India: As per Dr Swaminathan Global Scenario of Climate Change (a) Current scenario (b) Future projections Indian Scenario of Climate Change (a) Current scenario (b) Future projections Organic agriculture Climate Variability and Food Production Projected Climate Change Scenarios over Indian Subcontinent Vulnerability of Crop Production Uncertainties due to Scenarios and Crop Models on Impact Assessment Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies Predicted climate change impacts on agriculture Wheat Production Rice Production Policy implications of climate change Needs for further research Conclusion Crop Adaptation to climate change: An insight Ashu Singh RS Sengar, and Kalpana Sengar Introduction Challenges confronting India and other countries Human impact on the natural environment State of ecosystems, habitats and species Reduction and fragmentation of habitats and landscapes Loss of Species of Fauna and Flora Transport and Infrastructure Conclusion Influence of biotic and abiotic factors on yield and quality of medicinal and aromatic plants Amit Chauhan*, Ram Swaroop Verma, Rajendra Chandra Padalia Introduction Selected phyto chemical classes Factors influencing yield and quality of maps Abiotic factors Biotic factors Conclusion Understanding the patterns of gene expression during climate change: for enhancing crop productivity Rakesh Srivastava, Rashmi Srivastava and Uma Maheshwar Singh* Introduction Harmonization of Stress Signaling Pathway and Gene Expression Regulation Auxin Abscisic Acid (ABA) Brassinosteroids (BRs) Cytokinins Ethylene Jasmonic Acids (JA) Nitric oxide (NO) Salicylic Acid (SA) Stress Regulated Promoters and Gene Expression The Eukaryotic Promoter Architecture: The Controller Promoters: precise tools for controlling gene expression in environmental stress Coordination between transcriptional complex and stress related promoters TBP Associated Factors (TAFS) The Mediator TBP-Containing and TBP-Free Containing Complexes Implicated In Transcription Future Directions and Conclusions Acclimation and Adaptation of Plant to Different Environmental Abiotic Stress Amit Kumar, R SSengar, and Shivendra Vikram Sahi Introduction Type of plant stress Effect of temperature on Plant and its environment Temperature can effect on membrane and its enzyme Temperature can effect on photosynthesis Acclimatization of Plant at high temperature Acclimatization of Plant at Low temperature Q is the temperature dependent for plant respiration Plants adjust osmotically in water stress condition State transition Mechanism for energy distribution Long term acclimation Photoacclimation Gene Expression is regulated by the Light Acclimation to drought affect at different plant parts: Role of lipids in Drought stress Condition: Mechanisms of acclimation to water deficit and stress tolerance Acclimatization of Plant Exposed to Cold temperature: Plants survive freezing temperatures by limiting ice formation Cold-resistant plants tend to have membranes with more unsaturated fatty acids Cold acclimated plants secrete antifreeze proteins: Acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus due to high temperature Oxygen may protect during acclimation to various stress Plant Adaptation to Environmental Stress Global warming impact on crop productivity SC Santra, Anusaya Mallick, A C Samal Introduction Prediction of climate change models Global warming impact on plant growth and agriculture Crop yield response to climate change - Global perspective Direct effect Indirect effect Pests and diseases susceptibility Climate change and water availability Climate change and soil fertility Climate change impact on Indian agriculture Vulnerability assessment in Indian agriculture Mitigation of climate change, Genetic resource centers for adaptation to climate changes Conclusion Climate Change and Sustainability of Biodiversity M K Sarma, Sangeeta Baruah and AK Sharma Biodiversity: Climate change: Causes of Climate change: Impact of climate change on Biodiversity: Fossil-age context of biodiversity and climate change: Present day context: Direct impact of climate change in biodiversity: Shift in distribution of Biotic community: Interaction among species: Invasive Species: Alteration in phenology: Precipitation and evaporation pattern: Impact on agricultural ecosystem: Impact on population structure: Indirect impacts of climate change on biodiversity: Impact of climate change on specific ecosystem: Impact on forest ecosystem: Impact on Marine ecosystem: Impacts of climate in terrestrial realm: A. Range and abundance shifts: B. Life cycle changes C. Evolutionary effect: D. Disturbance Regimes and Ecosystem-level change Impact of climate change in the freshwater realm: A Hydrological Cycle Change: Reduced Surface Water Availability B Hydrological Cycle Change: Reduced Surface Water Availability Human activities add fuel to biodiversity threat: Management of the disaster caused upon biodiversity by climate change: Conclusion: Marker assisted breeding approaches for enhancing stress tolerance in crops in changing climate scenario Uma M Singh, Gunjan Tiwari, B Kalyana Babu, Rakesh Srivastava Introduction: Key biotechnological strategies for improving abiotic stress tolerance Molecular Breeding (MB) approach Genetic Engineering (GE) approach Section I: Molecular markers and their applications for crop improvement Molecular markers First Generation Molecular markers Second Generation Molecular markers New generation Molecular markers Hybridization-based molecular markers PCR-based markers Section II: Molecular markers for crop improvement Construction of linkage maps Mapping populations F population: F derived F (F:) population: Back cross population: Double Haploids(DHs): Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs): Near-Isogenic Lines (NILs): Identification of polymorphism Linkage analysis of markers Genetic distance and mapping functions Conventional Breeding vs Marker-Assisted Backcrossing: Case study: Breeding Wheat for Adaptation to Moisture Stress and Increased Temperature Characters Important in Conservation Agriculture Global climate change with reference to Microor...