Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells: Physical Principles of Materials and Operation.pdf
The book provides a systematic and profound account of scientific challenges in fuel cell research. The introductory chapters bring readers who have a scientific background, but who are not experts in electrochemical energy conversion, up to date on the urgency and implications of the global energy challenge, the prospects of electrochemical energy conversion technologies, and the thermodynamic and electrochemical principles underlying the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The book then presents the scientific challenges in fuel cell research as a systematic account of distinct components, length scales, physicochemical processes, and scientific disciplines. The main part of the book focuses on theory and molecular modeling. Theoretical tools and approaches, applied to fuel cell research, are presented in a self-contained manner. Chapters are arranged by different fuel cell materials and components, and sections advance through the hierarchy of scales, starting from molecular-level processes in proton conducting media or electro catalytic systems and ending with performance issues at the device level, including electrochemical performance, water management, durability and analysis of failure mechanisms. Throughout, the book gives numerous examples of formidable scientific challenges as well as of tools to facilitate materials design and development of diagnostic methods. It reveals reserves for performance improvements and uncovers misapprehensions in scientific understanding that have misled or may continue to mislead technological development. An indispensable resource for scientifically minded and practically oriented researchers, this book helps industry leaders to appreciate the contributions of fundamental research, and leaders of fundamental research to appreciate the needs of industry.
"The presented material clearly distinguishes itself from the common engineering focus of many other fuel cell books. It is unique in its scientific approach and provides rigorous scientific explanations and insight into the functionality of fuel cells. ... I like the fact that the authors focus on the two key domains of PEM fuel cells, namely membranes and catalyst layers, where major challenges in materials science remain. It...fills a critical gap in the fuel cell literature. ... In fact, [chapter one] provides the best overview of PEM fuel cell concepts that I have seen in any book. I would expect that this chapter alone will be cited by other researchers many times in the future. ... This book belongs on the shelf of everyone seriously interested in the scientific concepts of PEM fuel cells. It stands out as a rigorous and comprehensive discussion of the functionality of polymer electrolyte membranes and catalyst layers. It provides an excellent overview of modelling approaches regarding membranes and catalyst layers." -Dr. Peter Berg, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim
Contents Preface Introduction Global Energy Challenge Towards an Age of Electrochemistry Energy Conversion in Chemistry, Biology, and Electrochemistry Principles of Electrochemical Energy Conversion Sleeping Beauty: 100 Years Is Not Enough! Polarization Curves and "Moore's Law" of Fuel Cells About This Book Basic Concepts Fuel Cell Principle and Basic Layout Fuel Cell Thermodynamics Mass Transport Processes Potentials Heat Production and Transport Brief Discourse on Fuel Cell Electrocatalysis Key Materials in PEFC: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Key Materials in PEFC: Porous Composite Electrodes Performance of Type I Electrodes Space Scales in Fuel Cell Modeling Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Introduction State of Understanding Polymer Electrolyte Membranes The Theory and Modeling of Structure Formation in PEMs Water Sorption and Swelling of PEMs Proton Transport Electro-Osmotic Drag Concluding Remarks Catalyst Layer Structure and Operation Powerhouses of PEM Fuel Cells Theory and Modeling of Porous Electrodes How to Evaluate Structure of CCL? State-of-the-Art in Theory and Modeling: Multiple Scales Nanoscale Phenomena in Fuel Cell Electrocatalysis Electrocatalysis of the Oxygen Reduction Reaction at Platinum ORR in Water-Filled Nanopores: Electrostatic Effects Structure Formation in Catalyst Layers and Effective Properties Structural Model and Effective Properties of Conventional CCL Concluding Remarks Modeling of Catalyst Layer Performance Framework of Catalyst Layer Performance Modeling Model of Transport and Reaction in Cathode MHM with Constant Coefficients: Analytical Solutions Ideal Proton Transport Ideal Oxygen Transport Weak Oxygen Transport Limitation Polarization Curves for Small to Medium Oxygen Transport Loss Remarks to Sections 4.4-4.7 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Electrodes Optimal Catalyst Layer Heat Flux from the Catalyst Layer Applications Introduction PEM in Fuel Cell Modeling Dynamic Water Sorption and Flux in PEMs Membrane in Fuel Cell Modeling Performance Modeling of a Fuel Cell Impedance Model of a Single Water-Filled Nanopore Physical Modeling of Catalyst Layer Impedance Impedance of the Cathode Side of a PEM Fuel Cell Carbon Corrosion due to Feed Maldistribution Dead Spots in the PEM Fuel Cell Anode Tables Bibliography Abbreviations Index Nomenclature