Medical Statistics - A Guide To Data Analysis And Critical Appraisal.pdf

Medical Statistics - A Guide To Data Analysis And Critical Appraisal.pdf
 

书籍描述

目录
Foreword Acknowledgements 1. Creating a SPSS data file and preparing to analyse the data 2 1.1. Creating a SPSS data file 2 1.2. Opening data from Excel in SPSS 10 1.3. Categorical and continuous variables 11 1.4. Classifying variables for analyses 11 1.5. Hypothesis testing and P values 13 1.6. Choosing the correct statistical test 14 1.7. Sample size requirements 14 1.8. Study handbook and data analysis plan 15 1.9. Documentation 16 1.10. Checking the data 17 1.11. Avoiding and replacing missing values 17 1.12. SPSS Data management capabilities 20 1.13. Managing SPSS output 23 1.14. SPSS help commands 24 1.15. Golden rules for reporting numbers 25 1.16. Notes for critical appraisal 25 2 Descriptive statistics 2 2.1 Parametric and non-parametric statistics 3 2.2 Normal distribution 3 2.3 Skewed distributions 4 2.4 Checking for normality 7 2.5 Transforming skewed variables 20 2.6 Data analysis pathway 25 2.7 Reporting descriptive statistics 25 2.8 Checking for normality in published results 26 2.9 Notes for critical appraisal 27 3 Comparing two independent samples 2 3.1 Comparing the means of two independent samples 2 3.2 One and two sided tests of significance 4 3.3 Effect sizes 5 3.4 Study design 8 3.5 Influence of sample size 9 3.6 Two-sample t-test 23 3.7 Confidence intervals 27 3.8 Reporting the results from two sample t-tests 29 3.9 Rank based non-parametric tests 32 3.10 Notes for critical appraisal 38 4 Paired and one-sample t-tests 2 4.1 Paired t-tests 2 4.2 Non-parametric test for paired data 10 4.3 Standardising for differences in baseline measurements 13 4.4 Single-sample t-test 14 4.5 Testing for a between group difference 19 4.6 Notes for critical appraisal 25 5 Analysis of variance 4 5.1 Building ANOVA and ANCOVA models 5 5.2 ANOVA models 6 5.3 One-way analysis of variance 10 5.4 Effect size for ANOVA 20 5.5 Post-hoc tests for ANOVA 22 5.6 Testing for a trend 28 5.7 Reporting the results of a one-way ANOVA 29 5.8 Factorial ANOVA models 30 5.9 An example of a three-way ANOVA 38 5.10 Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) 44 5.11 Testing the model assumptions of ANOVA/ANCOVA 50 5.12 Reporting the results of an ANCOVA 59 5.13 Notes for critical appraisal 59 6 Analyses of longitudinal data 3 6.1 Study design 4 6.2 Sample size and power 4 6.3 Covariates 6 6.4 Assumptions of repeated measures ANOVA and mixed models 6 6.5 Repeated measures analysis of variance 7 6.6 Linear mixed models 25 6.7 Critical appraisal checklist 37 7. Correlation and regression 4 7.1. Correlation coefficients 5 7.2. Regression models 14 7.3. Multiple linear regression 24 7.4. Interactions 47 7.5. Residuals 51 7.6. Outliers and remote points 54 7.7. Validating the model 56 7.8. Reporting a multiple linear regression (1 continuous variable & 2 categorical variables) 57 7.9. Non-linear regression 57 7.10. Centring 60 7.11. Notes for critical appraisal 63 8 Rates and proportions 4 8.1 Summarising categorical variables 5 8.2 Describing baseline characteristics 6 8.3 Incidence and prevalence 7 8.4 Chi-square tests 8 8.5 2 × 3 chi-square tables 17 8.6 Cells with small numbers 19 8.7 Exact chi square test 20 8.8 Number of cells that can be tested 23 8.9 Reporting chi-squared tests and proportions 25 8.10 Large contingency tables 27 8.11 Categorising continuous variables 31 8.12 Chi-square trend test for ordered variables 35 8.13 Number needed to treat (NNT) 38 8.14 Paired categorical variables: McNemar's chi-square test 44 8.15 Notes for critical appraisal 49 9. Risk statistics 2 9.1. Risk statistics 2 9.2. Study design 3 9.3. Odds ratio 4 9.4. Protective odds ratios 14 9.5. Adjusted odds ratios 17 9.6. Relative risk 30 9.7. Number needed to be exposed for one additional person to be harmed (NNEH) 35 9.8. Notes for critical appraisal 36 10 Tests of reliability and agreement 2 10.1 Reliability and agreement 2 10.2 Kappa statistic 5 10.3 Reliability of continuous measurements 11 10.4 Intra-class correlation 12 10.5 Measures of agreement 15 10.6 Notes for critical appraisal 20 11. Diagnostic statistics 2 11.1 Positive and negative predictive values 3 11.2 Sensitivity and specificity 6 11.3 Likelihood ratio 11 11.4 Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves 13 11.5 Notes for critical appraisal 20 12. Survival analyses 2 12.1 Study design 3 12.2 Censored observations 3 12.3 Kaplan--Meier survival method 4 12.4 Cox regression 15 12.5 Questions for critical appraisal 23 Glossary Index

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