Second Language Acquisition and Task-Based Language Teaching.pdf

Second Language Acquisition and Task-Based Language Teaching.pdf


This book offers an in-depth explanation of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) and the methods necessary to implement it in the language classroom successfully. Combines a survey of theory and research in instructed second language acquisition (ISLA) with insights from language teaching and the philosophy of education Details best practice for TBLT programs, including discussion of learner needs and means analysis; syllabus design; materials writing; choice of methodological principles and pedagogic procedures; criterion-referenced, task-based performance assessment; and program evaluation Written by an esteemed scholar of second language acquisition with over 30 years of research and classroom experience Considers diffusion of innovation in education and the potential impact of TBLT on foreign and second language learning

Preface and acknowledgments Theory and research 1. Why TBLT? 1.1. The importance of second language learning and teaching in the 21st century 1.2. TBLT and the meaning of 'task' 1.3. A rationale for TBLT 1.3.1. Consistency with SLA theory and research findings 1.3.2. Basis in philosophy of education 1.3.3. Accountability 1.3.4. Relevance 1.3.5. Avoidance of known problems with existing approaches 1.3.6. Learner-centeredness 1.3.7. Functionality 1.4. Summary 1.5. Suggested readings 2. SLA and the fundamental LT divide 2.1. Interventionist and non-interventionist positions 2.1.1. Interventionist positions 2.1.2. Non-interventionist positions 2.2. Synthetic and analytic approaches to LT 2.2.1. Synthetic approaches 2.2.2. Analytic approaches 2.3. Problems with synthetic approaches and Focus on Forms 2.4. Problems with analytic approaches and Focus on Meaning 2.5. A third option: analytic approaches with a Focus on Form 2.6. A role for ISLA research 2.7. Summary 2.8. Suggested readings 3. Psycholinguistic underpinnings: A cognitive-interactionist theory of instructed SLA (ISLA) 3.1. Theoretical disunity in SLA 3.2. When knowledge is incomplete: the role of theory 3.3. A cognitive-interactionist theory of SLA: problems and explanations P1. Purely incidental and implicit child L1A is overwhelmingly successful P2. Purely incidental and implicit adult L2A is highly variable and largely unsuccessful E1. Adult SLA is maturationally constrained E2. Adults, so defined, are partially 'disabled' language learners P3. Some classes of linguistic features in adult SLA are fragile E3. Implicit learning is still the default learning mechanism E4. Explicit learning (including focal attention) is required to improve implicit processing in adult SLA, but is constrained E5. Attention is critical, at two levels E6. The Interaction Hypothesis E7. The role of negative feedback, including recasts P4. Success and failure in adult SLA varies among and within individuals E8. Individual differences, especially input sensitivity, and linguistic differences, especially perceptual saliency, are responsible for variability in, and within, ultimate L2 attainment 3.4. Summary 3.5. Suggested readings 4. Philosophical underpinnings: L'education integrale 4.1. TBLT's philosophical principles: origins and overview 4.2. L'education integrale and learning by doing 4.3. Individual freedom 4.4. Rationality 4.5. Emancipation 4.6. Learner-centeredness 4.7. Egalitarian teacher-student relationships 4.8. Participatory democracy 4.9. Mutual aid and cooperation 4.10. Summary Design and implementation 5. Task-based needs and means analysis 5.1. Why needs analysis? 5.2. Needs analysis and learner diversity 5.3. Doubts about needs analysis 5.3.1. General English for all 5.3.2. The ex-post-facto process syllabus 5.3.3. Felt needs or objective needs? 5.3.4. Learner heterogeneity 5.3.5. Surface linguistic features or underlying technical competence? 5.3.6. The dark side 5.4. The growth of needs analysis 5.4.1. The Council of Europe's unit credit system 5.4.2. Munby's Communication Needs Processor and its critics 5.5. Task as the unit of (needs) analysis 5.5.1. Tasks defined 5.5.2. Avoiding the traditional bottleneck in needs analysis 5.5.3. The availability of ready-made task-based analyses 5.6. Means analysis 5.7. Summary 5.8. Suggested readings 6. Identifying target tasks 6.1. Sources of information 6.1.1. Published and unpublished literature 6.1.2. The learners 6.1.3. Applied linguists 6.1.4. Domain experts 6.1.5. Triangulated sources 6.2. Methodology 6.2.1. The use of multiple measures, and their sequencing 6.2.2. Sampling 6.2.3. Expert and non-expert intuitions 6.2.4. Interviews 6.2.5. Questionnaire surveys 6.2.6. Language audits 6.2.7. Participant and non-participant observation 6.2.8. Journals and logs 6.2.9. Proficiency measures 6.2.10. Triangulation by methods and sources -- the flight attendants study 6.3. Summary 6.4. Suggested readings 7. Analyzing target discourse 7.1. Conventional approaches to language analysis for language teaching 7.2. The dynamic qualities of target discourse 7.2.1. Boswood and Marriot's "ethnographic approach" 7.2.2. Mohan & Marshall Smith's "language socialization" approach 7.2.3. Watson-Gegeo's true ethnography and "thick explanation" 7.2.4. TBLT 7.3. Discourse analysis and analysis of discourse 7.3.1. Discourse analysis 7.3.2. Analysis of discourse 7.3.3. Sampling and data-collection 7.4. Analysis of target discourse: Five cases 7.4.1. The railway ticket purchase 7.4.2. Japanese tourist shopping 7.4.3. Doing architecture 7.4.4. Buying and selling a cup of coffee 7.4.5. When small talk is a big deal 7.5. Summary 7.6. Suggested readings 8. Task-based syllabus design 8.1. Some minimum requirements 8.2. The unit of analysis 8.2.1. The structural, or grammatical, syllabus 8.2.2. The notional-functional syllabus 8.2.3. The lexical syllabus 8.2.4. Topical and situational syllabuses 8.2.5. The content syllabus 8.2.6. The procedural syllabus 8.2.7. The process syllabus 8.2.8. The task syllabus 8.2.9. The hybrid syllabus 8.3. Selection 8.3.1. Target tasks and target task-types 8.3.2. Pedagogic tasks 8.4. Grading 8.4.1. Valency and criticality 8.4.2. Frequency 8.4.3. Learnability 8.4.4. Complexity and difficulty 8.4.5. Some research findings on pedagogic task-types 8.5. Summary 8.6. Suggested readings 9. Task-based materials 9.1. Desirable qualities of pedagogic tasks 9.2. Input simplification and elaboration 9.2.1. Genuineness, input simplification, and authenticity 9.2.2. Input elaboration 9.2.3. The Paco sentences 9.2.4. Effects of simplification and elaboration on L2 comprehension and acquisition 9.3. Sample task-based materials 9.3.1. Preliminaries 9.3.2. Sample modules for true and false beginners Geometric figures tasks (Matching shapes) "Spot-the-difference" tasks 9.3.3. Sample modules for elementary learners Obtaining and following street directions Decoding drug labels 9.3.4. Sample modules for intermediate learners Negotiating a police traffic stop Delivering a sales report 9.3.5. Sample modules for advanced learners A complex political issue Attending an academic lecture 9.4. Summary 9.5. Suggested readings 10. Methodological principles and pedagogic procedures 10.1. Methodological principles, pedagogic procedures, and evaluation criteria 10.2. Ten methodological principles 10.2.1. MP1: Use task, not text, as the unit of analysis 10.2.2. MP2: Promote learning by doing 10.2.3. MP3: Elaborate input 10.2.4. MP4: Provide rich input 10.2.5. MP5: Encourage inductive "chunk" learning 10.2.6. MP6: Focus on form 10.2.7. MP7: Provide negative feedback 10.2.8. MP8: Respect learner syllabuses and developmental processes 10.2.9. MP9: Promote cooperative collaborative learning 10.2.10. MP10: Individualize instruction 10.3. Pedagogic procedures 10.4. Summary 10.5. Suggested readings 11. Task-based assessment and program evaluation 11.1. Task-based, criterion-referenced performance tests 11.2. Task completion and/or language abilities? 11.3. Target tasks or underlying constructs and abilities? 11.4. The transferability of task-based abilities 11.5. Program evaluation 11.5.1. Some general requirements on TBLT evaluations 11.5.2. Laboratory and classroom studies 11.5.3. Research findings on methodological principles 11.5.4. Evaluating task-based courses and programs Establishing construct validity Sample evaluations and findings 11.6. Summary 11.7. Suggested readings The road ahead 12. Does TBLT have a future? 12.1. Diffusion of innovation 12.2. A research program for TBLT 12.3. Building the road as we travel References Index Appendix: List of abbreviations


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