Switching in Electric Transmission and Distribution Systems.pdf
This book covers the technology of switching in systems for electrical power transmission and distribution, from medium to (and including) ultra-high voltage for alternating current (AC). Emphasis is on the electrical aspects, covering the electrical transient phenomena of switching, its background, a generic description of equipment used for switching, various application examples, specification and commissioning of such equipment and testing aspects. The different methods to test high-voltage circuit-breakers are presented for each type of switching condition. In order to be close to the user, the standardized requirement for such equipment is followed as a guideline. This book supplies practical guidance on how to deal with unacceptable switching transientsand gives an explanation to world-wide IEC standards on switching equipment, illustrating current applications. It also incorporates the most recent developments both in technology (e.g. greater use of vacuum breakers, developments in UHV (1000kV) technology) and techniques via their involvement in testing, research & international conferences such as IEC & CIGRE. The authors have experience in giving courses all over the world and have seen first-hand that users of switching equipment want to learn more about the phenomena and technology. After an introduction, the book covers faults in power systems and then fault current making and breaking. The third and fourth chapters discuss load switching SF6 switchgear. Chapter Six presents vacuum switchgear. Special switching situations are looked at next, then application of switchgear, specification and commissioning. The final chapter covers testing (type tests, acceptance tests, development tests).