Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects.pdf

Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects.pdf
 

书籍描述

目录
Chapter 1 Heating, Cooling, and Lighting as Form-Givers in Architecture 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Indigenous and Vernacular Architecture 1.3 Formal Architecture 1.4 The Architectural Approach to Sustainable Design 1.5 Dynamic Versus Static Buildings 1.6 Resilient Design 1.7 Biophilic Design 1.8 Color and Ornamentation 1.9 Energy and Architecture 1.10 Climate and Architecture 1.11 Sustainability Codes and Voluntary Programs 1.12 Integrated Design 1.13 Decision Making 1.14 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 1 Resources Further Reading Papers Organizations Chapter 2 Sustainable Design and Energy Sources 2.1 Easter Island: Learning from the Past 2.2 Sustainable Design 2.3 Reuse, Recycle, and Regenerate by Design 2.4 The Sustainability Movement 2.5 Population and Affluence 2.6 Growth 2.7 Exponential Growth 2.8 The Amoeba Analogy* 2.9 Supply Versus Efficiency 2.10 Sustainable-Design Issues 2.11 Climate Change 2.12 The Global Greenhouse 2.13 The Ozone Hole 2.14 Efficiency versus Renewable Energy 2.15 Energy Sources 2.16 Ancient Greece: A Historical Example 2.17 Nonrenewable Energy Sources 2.18 Renewable Energy Sources 2.19 Hydrogen 2.20 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Basic Principles 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Heat 3.3 Sensible Heat 3.4 Latent Heat 3.5 Evaporative Cooling 3.6 Convection 3.7 Transport 3.8 Energy-Transfer Mediums 3.9 Radiation 3.10 Greenhouse Effect 3.11 Equilibrium Temperature of a Surface 3.12 Mean Radiant Temperature 3.13 Heat Flow 3.14 Heat Sink 3.15 Heat Capacity 3.16 Thermal Resistance 3.17 Heat-Flow Coefficient 3.18 Time Lag 3.19 Insulating Effect of Mass 3.20 Energy Conversion 3.21 Combined Heat and Power 3.22 Fuel Cells 3.23 Embodied Energy 3.24 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Thermal Comfort 4.1 Biological Machine 4.2 Thermal Barriers 4.3 Metabolic Rate 4.4 Thermal Conditions of the Environment 4.5 The Psychrometric Chart 4.6 Dew Point and Wet-Bulb Temperatures 4.7 Heat Content of Air 4.8 Thermal Comfort 4.9 Shifting of the Comfort Zone 4.10 Adaptive Comfort 4.11 Clothing and Comfort 4.12 Strategies 4.13 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 4 Resources Further Reading Organizations Chapter 5 Climate 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Climate 5.3 Microclimate 5.4 Climatic Anomalies 5.5 Climate Regions of the United States and Canada 5.6 Explanations of the Climatic Data Tables 5.7 Relative Heating and Cooling Loads 5.8 Additional Climate Information 5.9 Climate Information for Other Countries 5.9 Design Strategies Key Ideas of Chapter 5 Resources Further Reading Web Resources--United States Web Resources--World Chapter 6 Solar Geometry 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The Sun 6.3 Elliptical Orbit 6.4 Tilt of the Earth's Axis 6.5 Consequences of the Altitude Angle 6.6 Winter 6.7 The Sun Revolves Around The Earth! 6.8 Sky Dome 6.9 Determining Altitude and Azimuth Angles 6.10 Solar Time 6.11 Horizontal Sun-Path Diagrams 6.12 Vertical Sun-Path Diagrams 6.13 Drawing Sunbeams 6.14 Sun-Path Models 6.15 Solar Heat Gain 6.16 Solar Site-EvaluationS Tools 6.17 Heliodons 6.18 Sundials For Model Testing 6.19 Conceptually Clear Heliodons 6.20 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 6 Resources Heliodons Further Reading Papers Chapter 7 Passive Solar 7.1 History 7.2 Solar In America 7.3 Solar Hemicycle 7.4 Latest Rediscovery of Passive Solar 7.5 Passive Solar 7.6 Direct-Gain Systems 7.7 Design Guidelines for Direct-Gain Systems 7.8 Example 7.9 Trombe Wall Systems 7.10 Design Guidelines for Trombe Wall Systems 7.11 Example 7.12 Sunspaces 7.13 Balcomb House 7.14 Sunspace Design Guidelines 7.16 General Considerations For Passive Solar Systems 7.17 Heat-Storage Materials 7.18 Other Passive Heating Systems 7.19 Maximizing Passive Solar 7.20 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 7 Resources Further Reading Periodicals Organizations Chapter 8 Photovoltaics And Active Solar 8.1 Introduction 8.2 The Almost Ideal Energy Source 8.3 History of PV 8.4 The PV Cell 8.5 Types of PV Systems 8.6 Balance of System Equipment 8.7 Building-Integrated Photovoltaics 8.8 Orientation and Tilt 8.9 Roofs Clad with PV 8.10 Facades Clad with PV 8.11 Glazing and PV 8.12 PV Shading Devices 8.13 PV: Part of the Second Tier 8.14 Sizing a PV System 8.15 Finding The PV Array Size for a Stand-Alone Building by the Short Calculation Method 8.16 Design Guidelines 8.17 The Promise of PV 8.18 The Cost Effectiveness of PV and Active Solar Applications 8.19 Active Solar Swimming-Pool Heating 8.20 Solar Hot-Water Systems 8.21 Solar Hot-Air Collectors 8.22 Designing an Active Solar System 8.23 Active/Passive Solar Systems 8.24 Preheating of Ventilation Air 8.25 The Future of Active Solar 8.26 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 8 References Resources Chapter 9 Shading and Light Colors 9.1 History of Shading 9.2 Shading 9.3 Fixed Exterior shading devices 9.4 Movable Shading Devices 9.5 Shading Periods of the Year 9.6 Overhangs 9.7 Design of Horizontal Overhangs--Basic Method 9.8 Shading Design for South Windows 9.9 Design Guidelines for Fixed South Overhangs 9.10 Design Guidelines for Movable South Overhangs 9.11 Shading for East and West Windows 9.12 Design of East and West Horizontal Overhangs 9.13 Design of Fins on North Windows 9.14 Design Guidelines for Eggcrate Shading Devices 9.15 Special Shading Strategies 9.16 Shading Outdoor Spaces 9.17 Using Physical Models for Shading Design 9.18 Glazing as the Shading Element 9.19 Interior Shading Devices 9.20 Solar Heat-Gain Coefficient 9.21 Roof and Wall Reflectivity 9.22 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 9 References Resources Further Reading Sources of Shading Devices Chapter 10 Passive Cooling 10.1 Introduction to Cooling 10.2 Historical and Indigenous use of Passive Cooling 10.3 Passive Cooling Systems 10.4 Comfort Ventilation Versus Night-Flush Cooling 10.5 Basic Principles of Air Flow 10.6 Air Flow Through Buildings 10.7 Example of Ventilation Design 10.8 Comfort Ventilation 10.9 Night-Flush Cooling 10.10 Double-Skin Facades and Operable Roofs 10.11 Radiant Cooling 10.12 Evaporative Cooling 10.13 Cool Towers 10.14 Earth Cooling 10.15 Dehumidification with a Desiccant 10.16 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 10 Resources Further Reading Reference Chapter 11 Site Design, Community Planning, and Landscaping 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Site Selection 11.3 Solar Access 11.4 Shadow Patterns 11.5 Site Planning 11.6 Solar zoning 11.7 Physical Models 11.8 Wind and Site Design 11.9 Plants and Vegetation 11.10 Vegetated Roofs 11.11 Lawns 11.12 Landscaping 11.13 Community Design 11.14 Cooling Our Communities 11.15 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 11 References Resources Further Reading Papers Chapter 12 Lighting 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Light 12.3 Reflectance/Transmittance 12.4 Color 12.5 Vision 12.6 Perception 12.7 Performance of a Visual Task 12.8 Characteristics of the Visual Task 12.9 Illumination Level 12.10 Brightness Ratios 12.11 Glare 12.12 Equivalent Spherical Illumination 12.13 Activity Needs 12.14 Biological Needs 12.15 Light and Health 12.16 The Poetry of Light 12.17 Rules for Lighting Design 12.18 Career Possibilities 12.19 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 12 References Resources Further Reading Organizations Chapter 13 Daylighting 13.1 History of Daylighting 13.2 Why Daylighting? 13.3 The Nature of Daylight 13.4 Conceptual Model* 13.5 Illumination and The Daylight Factor 13.6 Light Without Heat? 13.7 Cool Daylight 13.8 Goals of Daylighting 13.9 Basic Daylighting Strategies 13.10 Basic Window Strategies 13.11 Advanced Window Strategies 13.12 Window Glazing Materials 13.13 Top Lighting 13.14 Skylight Strategies 13.15 Clerestories, Monitors, and Light Scoops 13. 16 Special Daylighting Techniques 13.17 Translucent Walls and Roofs 13. 18 Electric Lighting as a Supplement to Daylighting 13.19 Physical Modeling 13.20 Guidelines for Daylighting 13.21 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 13 References Resources Further Reading Organizations Chapter 14 Electric Lighting 14.1 History of Light Sources 14.2 Light Sources 14.3 Incandescent and Halogen Lamps 14.4 Discharge Lamps 14.5 Fluorescent Lamps 14.6 High Intensity Discharge Lamps (Mercury, Metal Halide, and High Pressure Sodium) 14.7 Solid State Lighting 14.8 Comparison of the Major Lighting Sources 14.9 Luminaires 14.10 Lenses, Diffusers, and Baffles 14.11 Lighting Systems 14.12 Remote-Source Lighting Systems 14.13 Visualizing Light Distribution 14.14 Architectural Lighting 14.15 Outdoor Lighting 14.16 Emergency Lighting 14.17 Controls 14.18 Maintenance 14.19 Rules for Energy-Efficient Electric Lighting Design 14.20 Laws and Standards 14.21 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 14 Resources Further Reading Organizations CHAPTER 15 The Thermal Envelope: Keeping Warm and Staying Cool 15.1 Background 15.2 Heat Loss 15.3 Heat Gain 15.4 Solar Reflectivity (Albedo) 15.5 Compactness, Exposed Area, and Thermal Planning 15.6 Insulation Materials 15.7 The Thermal Envelope 15.8 Heat Bridges 15.9 Windows 15.10 Movable Insulation 15.11 Insulating Effect From Thermal Mass 15.12 Earth Sheltering 15.13 Infiltration and Ventilation 15.14 Moisture Control 15.15 Radon 15.16 Appliances 15.17 Conclusion Key Ideas of Chapter 15 References Resources Further Reading Organizations Web Based Sources Chapter 16 Mechanical Equipment for Heating and Cooling 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Heating 16.3 Thermal Zones 16.4 Heating Systems 16.5 Electric Heating 16.6 Hot-Water (Hydronic) Heating 16.7 Hot-Air Systems 16.8 Cooling 16.9 Refrigeration Cycles 16.10 Heat Pumps 16.11 Geo-Exchange 16.12 Cooling Systems 16.13 Air Conditioning for Small Buildings 16.14 Air Conditioning for Large Multistory Buildings 16.15 Design Guidelines for Mechanical Systems 16.16 Air Supply (Ducts and Diffusers) 16.17 Ventilation 16.18 Energy-Efficient Ventilation Systems 16.19 Air Filtration and Odor Removal 16.20 Special Systems 16.21 Integrated and Exposed Mechanical Equipment 16.22 Low Energy Hea...

内容简介
One of the leading references on the design of a building's environmental controls has just gotten better.For years, "Heating, Cooling, Lighting" has supplied architects and students with the strategies needed for initial design decisions for building systems. The book looks at how to design the form of the building itself to take advantage of natural heating, cooling, and lighting and how to best utilize active mechanical equipment to satisfy the needs not provided by nature. This new edition has been expanded and updated to reflect the latest practices for low energy building design, and information on integrating technical strategies at the schematic design stage.Reflecting the latest developments, codes, standards, and rating systems for energy efficiency, this Fourth Edition provides detailed information concerning thermal comfort, mechanical heating and cooling systems, climate, passive heating and cooling, shading, site planning, daylight and artificial lighting, and conservation.

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