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Entire cities and counties have banned themMcDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken have declared to give them up—as have Starbucks，Ruby Tuesday，and a host of other former sources of sinful pleasuresIn response to the 2006 Food and Drug Administration requirement that trans fats be listed on nutrition labels，makers of packaged goods have brought their totals down to zeroLast month，FritoLay even got the FDAs blessing to put a claim on products loaded with healthy，unsaturated fats that replacing bad fats with good ones may protect against heart disease
Does this mean that junk food is now the new health food? “No! ” says Robert Eckel，immediate past president of the American Heart Association，whose “Face the Fats” education campaign points out that a “zerotrans fats” label doesnt tell the whole story“People know trans fats are not good for them，” says Eckel“But they do not understand that replacing them with saturated fat is not a good option” And that，in some cases，is whats happening. Yes，the food industry is experimenting with ways to keep the saturated fat content low—by using unsaturated options such as canola and sunflower oils，for exampleBut some manufacturers，unwilling to sacrifice taste and texture，are turning back to lessthanhealthful choices such as palm oil and butter
Baked goods have proved particularly unwilling to changeThe solid fats that provide their light texture and flakiness as well as the rich flavor typically are either highly saturated or are “partially hydrogenated” oils that contain trans fatsMakers of fried foods have had an easier task，since certain liquid unsaturated oils can do as tasty a jobSnack makers，too，have found the switch to be relatively manageable
Manufacturers are raising nutrition experts eyebrows with other tricks，tooWalter Willett，a professor of epidemiology and nutrition at Harvard whose research showed that trans fats promote heart disease，says that some companies now are fully，rather than partially，hydrogenating vegetable oilFull hydrogenation doesnt create trans fats as it solidifies the oil，but it does produce an acid，a saturated fat which seems in preliminary research to promote inflammation，thus contributing to heart disease“Im not in favor of using totally hydrogenated oil until more is known，” he says
A recent study by the International Food Information Council Foundation shows that about 42 percent of Americans—a 9 percent increase over last year—are trying to cut back on certain healthy fats along with transfats“AlI people hear is that fat is bad，bad，bad，” says Susan Borra，president of the foundationIn fact，most people need more of the good kind
1McDonalds and Kentucky Fred Chicken have pledged to get rid of
Asinful pleasuresBtrans fatsCnutritious fatsDunsaturated fats
2To which of the following statements would Robert Eckel most likely agree?
A“Zero trans fats” label tells that the food is healthy for sure
BJunk food is now thought of as the new health food
CIt sometimes does no good to use saturated fats instead of trans ones
DPeople dont realize that trans fats are harmful
3According to Paragraph 3，food makers are reluctant to give up solid fats in baked goods in that
Athey contribute to peoples healthBthey are partially hydrogenated
Cthey are highly saturatedDthey provide pleasant texture and taste
4When solidifying the oil，full hydrogenation might
Adirectly lead to a certain diseaseBcreate trans fats
Cgenerate unsaturated fatsDcontribute to fatal injury
5The last paragraph suggests that
Amost Americans try to reduce healthy fats and trans fats
Bpeople should take in more healthy fats
Cfat is really very bad without any benefits
D51 percent of Americans tried less healthy fats last year
Few disagreed with Christina Romer, who chairs Americas Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), when she wrote recently that the early 1960s were the CEAs “glory days”Take 1961, for instance. James Tobin was a member, Robert Solow was a staff economist, and consultant economists included Kenneth Arrow and Paul Samuelson. All four went on to win Nobel prizes.But fewer economists agreed with Ms Romers assertion that the CEAs staff in 2009 was of a calibre not seen since those starstudded days.
Greg Mankiw, a Harvard economist who chaired the CEA in 2003—2005, points out that the council packed considerable intellectual firepower under Martin Feldstein in 1982Three of its members or staff—Larry Summers (now Barack Obamas chief economic adviser), Mr Feldstein himself and Paul Krugman—have won the Clark medal, a prize for the best American economist under the age of 40. Mr Krugman went on to win the Nobel prize. Mr Mankiw does not think the present lot match up to the class of 1982He suggests measuring the academic influence of CEAs by how often their economists have been cited by their peers.
The Economist decided to see how different councils fared, through a widelyused index that ranks the top 5% of academic economists worldwide by citations to date. This is an imperfect measure, favouring members of older CEAs, who have both been active researchers for longer and whose influence was presumably boosted by their time on the council. Still, of the present CEAs three members, both Ms Romer and Austan Goolsbee make the cut. In comparison, all three members of Mr Mankiws CEA, and the one chaired by Janet Yellen during Bill Clintons later years in office, are on the list. More impressive is the fact that two of the seven senior economists attached to the present CEA are also among the top 5% of economists by citations, a rare distinction.
Measured by citation scores per team member, though, the present CEA does not stand out as much. The average score for 2009 works out at 291, much higher than 2008s 185 (despite multiple citations for the then chairman, Edward Lazear) but well below the average for Mr Mankiws team of 2003, when the average was 641The count for 1982s “dream team” is an impressive 755For 1993, when Joseph Stiglitz and Alan Blinder were members of the CEA, and the senior economists included the eventually muchcited David Cutler and Matthew Shapiro, the average score is 7365Ms Romers team is handicapped by our use of lifetime citation counts, but the difference is still striking.
Citations, of course, are an even more flawed measure of quality for staff economists, who tend to be younger. So we ranked the past ten years CEAs by the average quality of the economics departments where their senior economists got their PhDs. This too is imperfect, as the rankings do change, albeit slowly. But by this measure, the present cohort of senior staff economists is the secondbestqualified in academic terms of any of the past ten CEAs. It is beaten—but only barely—by the staff assembled by Glenn Hubbard for George Bush junior in 2001It does even better than Mr Feldsteins 1982 team. If part of any CEAs influence comes from the academic prestige of its members and staff, the present council has little to worry about. But it is not yet the most brilliant since the 1960s. Sorry, Ms Romer.
1Who has not won the Clark medal before？
ALarry Summers BGreg Mankiw
CMartin Feldstein DPaul Krugman
2The first paragraph suggests that
AChristina Romer considers the CEAs staff in 2009 to be the most extraordinary since 1960s
Beconomists often compare the CEAs staff in 2009 with that of the golden age
Cthe glory day of the CEA has left for good
DCEA in 2009 is full of preeminent economists
3Which of the following statements is not an evidence for Ms Romers wrong assertion?
AMeasured by citation scores per team member, the average score for 2009 works out at 291
BWhen ranked the past ten years CEAs by the average quality of the economics department, the 2009 team is beaten by the 2001 team.
C Mr Mankiw does not think the present lot match up to the class of 1982
DTwo of the seven senior economists attached to the present CEA are also among the top 5% of economists by citations, a rare distinction.
4The phrase “make the cut” in the third paragraph might mean
Adeal with Btake a short cut
Cup to the standardDunsatisfactory
5The main idea of the passage is
ASelect the best CEA team in the history.
BMeasure the performance of the CEA teams over the decades.
CIntroduce citation as a measurement to evaluate the performance of CEA.
DRefute Ms Romers assertion that the 2009 CEA is the best since the glory days.