The History of the Philosophy of Science: A Guide and Reader.pdf
Lydia Patton is Associate Professor in the Department of Philosophy, Virginia Tech. Dr. Patton's research centers on the history and philosophy of science and epistemology. Recent work includes "Methodology of the Sciences," forthcoming, Oxford Handbook of Nineteenth Century German Philosophy; "Experiment and Theory Building" (Synthese); "Hermann Von Helmholtz" (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy); and "Signs, Toy Models, and the A Priori" (Studies in History and Philosophy of Science).
1. Editor's Introduction Part One Approaches to the History and Philosophy of Science Introduction to "Approaches to the History and Philosophy of Science" "Reason in Science," George Santayana. "The Function of General Laws in History," Carl Hempel. "The Three Tasks of Epistemology," Hans Reichenbach. "What are Scientific Revolutions?" Thomas Kuhn. "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes," Imre Lakatos. "The Relations between the History and the Philosophy of Science," Thomas Kuhn. "The History of Science," Thomas Kuhn. "Scientific Research under a Historical Microscope," Martin Rudwick. "The Polity of Science," Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer. Part Two Debates in History and Philosophy of Science A. Hypotheses in Scientific Discovery Introduction to "Hypotheses in Scientific Discovery" "Of Inductions Improperly So Called," John Stuart Mill. "Mr. Mill's Logic," William Whewell. "Physical Theory and Experiment," Pierre Duhem. "Is there a Logic of Scientific Discovery?" Norwood Russell Hanson. B. Force in Natural Philosophy Introduction to "Force in Natural Philosophy" Principles of Philosophy (selections), Rene Descartes. "Critical Thoughts on the General Part of the Principles of Descartes," Gottfried Leibniz. On the Gravity and Equilibrium of Fluids (slightly abridged), Isaac Newton. "On the Divisibility and Subtlety of Matter," Emilie du Chatelet. "Of the Idea of Necessary Connexion," David Hume. "How is Pure Natural Science Possible?" Immanuel Kant. C. Natural History: Catastrophism and Uniformitarianism Introduction to "Catastrophism and Uniformitarianism" "Initial Discourse," George-Louis de Buffon. "Preliminary Observations to the Essay on the Theory of the Earth," Georges Cuvier. "Prejudices relating to the Theory of the Earth," John Playfair. "On the Geological Succession of Organic Beings," Charles Darwin. "Of the Doctrine of Catastrophes and the Doctrine of Uniformity," William Whewell.
History and Philosophy of Science: A Guide and Reader is a compact overview of HOPOS that aims to introduce students to the groundwork of the field, but also to stimulate innovative research. The original introduction focuses on scientific theory change, assessment, discovery, and pursuit. Part I of the Reader begins with classic texts in the history of logical empiricism, including Reichenbach's discovery-justification distinction. With careful reference to Kuhn's analysis of scientific revolutions, the section provides key texts analyzing the relationship of HOPOS to the history of science, including texts by Santayana, Rudwick, and Shapin and Schaffer. Part II provides texts illuminating central debates in the history of science and its philosophy. These include the history of natural philosophy (Descartes, Newton, Leibniz, Kant, Hume, and du Chatelet in a new translation); induction and the logic of discovery (including the Mill-Whewell debate, Duhem, and Hanson); and catastrophism versus uniformitarianism in natural history (Playfair on Hutton and Lyell; de Buffon, Cuvier, and Darwin). The editor's introductions to each section provide a broader perspective informed by contemporary research in each area, including related topics. Each introduction furnishes proposals, including thematic bibliographies, for innovative research questions and projects in the classroom and in the field.