字里行间英文经典:菊与刀.pdf

字里行间英文经典:菊与刀.pdf
 

书籍描述

编辑推荐
现代日本学开山之作
了解日本民族的必读经典
展现日本民族特质 揭示日本文化双重性

最佳的文学经典读物 最好的语言学习读本

名人推荐
这部作品对我们了解战后日本民族主义道德观提供很大帮助。
——日本知名人类学家 青木保

作者简介
鲁思•本尼迪克特(Ruth Benedict,1887—1948),美国当代著名文化人类学家,民族学家,诗人。20世纪初少数的女性学者,同艾德华•萨丕尔提出最早的文化形貌论,认为文化如同个人,具有不同的类型与特征。本尼迪克特早年学习英国文学,故其作品文笔高妙,并善于作诗以及细腻的描述。她的作品中,尤以《文化模式》与《菊与刀》最为著名。其著作中提出的问题与关怀,至今仍受到人类学、历史学等学科的重视与关注。

目录
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Chapter 1 …………………………………………………… 1
Chapter 2 …………………………………………………… 15
Chapter 3 …………………………………………………… 32
Chapter 4 …………………………………………………… 56
Chapter 5 …………………………………………………… 72
Chapter 6 …………………………………………………… 84
Chapter 7 …………………………………………………… 98
Chapter 8 …………………………………………………… 106
Chapter 9 …………………………………………………… 129
Chapter 10 ……………………………………………..…… 142
Chapter 11 ……………………………………………..…… 167
Chapter 12 ……………………………………………..…… 185
Chapter 13 ……………………………………………...…… 218
Glossary …………………………………………………..… 233

文摘
The Japanese were the most alien enemy the United States had ever fought in an all-out struggle. In no other war with a major foe had it been necessary to take into account such exceedingly different habits of acting and thinking. Like Czarist Russia before us in 1905, we were fighting a nation fully armed and trained which did not belong to the Western cultural tradition. Conventions of war which Western nations had come to accept as facts of human nature obviously did not exist for the Japanese. It made the war in the Pacific more than a series of landings on island beaches, more than an unsurpassed problem of logistics. It made it a major problem in the nature of the enemy. We had to understand their behavior in order to cope with it.
The difficulties were great. During the past seventy-five years since Japan’s closed doors were opened, the Japanese have been described in the most fantastic series of ‘but also’s’ ever used for any nation of the world. When a serious observer is writing about peoples other than the Japanese and says they are unprecedentedly polite, he is not likely to add, ‘But also insolent and overbearing.’ When he says people of some nation are incomparably rigid in their behavior, he does not add, ‘But also they adapt themselves readily to extreme innovations.’ When he says a people are submissive, he does not explain too that they are not easily amenable to control from above. When he says they are loyal and generous, he does not declare, ‘But also treacherous and spiteful.’ When he says they are genuinely brave, he does not expatiate on their timidity. When he says they act out of concern for others’ opinions, he does not then go on to tell that they have a truly terrifying conscience. When he describes robot-like discipline in their Army, he does not continue by describing the way the soldiers in that Army take the bit in their own teeth even to the point of insubordination. When he describes a people who devote themselves with passion to Western learning, he does not also enlarge on their fervid conservatism. When he writes a book on a nation with a popular cult of aestheticism which gives high honor to actors and to artists and lavishes art upon the cultivation of chrysanthemums, that book does not ordinarily have to be supplemented by another which is devoted to the cult of the sword and the top prestige of the warrior.
All these contradictions, however, are the warp and woof of books on Japan. They are true. Both the sword and the chrysanthemum are a part of the picture. The Japanese are, to the highest degree, both aggressive and unaggressive, both militaristic and aesthetic, both insolent and polite, rigid and adaptable, submissive and resentful of being pushed around, loyal and treacherous, brave and timid, conservative and hospitable to new ways. They are terribly concerned about what other people will think of their behavior, and they are also overcome by guilt when other people know nothing of their misstep. Their soldiers are disciplined to the hilt but are also insubordinate.
When it became so important for America to understand Japan, these contradictions and many others equally blatant could not be waved aside. Crises were facing us in quick succession. What would the Japanese do? Was capitulation possible without invasion? Should we bomb the Emperor’s palace? What could we expect of Japanese prisoners of war? What should we say in our propaganda to Japanese troops and to the Japanese homeland which could save the lives of Americans and lessen Japanese determination to fight to the last man? There were violent disagreements among those who knew the Japanese best. When peace came, were the Japanese a people who would require perpetual martial law to keep them in order? Would our army have to prepare to fight desperate bitter-enders in every mountain fastness of Japan? Would there have to be a revolution in Japan after the order of the French Revolution or the Russian Revolution before international peace was possible? Who would lead it? Was the alternative the eradication of the Japanese? It made a great deal of difference what our judgments were.

内容简介
本书为纯英文版,是美国人类学家鲁思•本尼迪克特讲述日本人性格和日本文化最著名的代表作,是了解日本民族绕不过的经典读本。恬淡静美的“菊”是日本皇室家徽,凶狠决绝的“刀”是武士道文化的象征。本书从日本人生活方式和典型事件入手,从日本对战争的看法讲起,讲到明治维新,用“菊”与“刀”来揭示日本人的矛盾性格,亦即日本文化的双重性,如爱美而黩武,尚礼而好斗,喜新而顽固,服从而不驯等,进而分析日本社会的等级制及有关习俗,并指出日本幼儿教养和成人教养的不连续性是形成双重性格的重要因素,使我们可直接、准确地把握日本人的“本性”。

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