Nobel Laureates: The Art and Science of Chemistry in Biomedical Research.pdf
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz, and Ada E. Yonath: The Structure and Function of the Ribosome (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2009) Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Y. Tsien: The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2008) Roger D. Kornberg: The Molecular Basis of Eukaryotic Transcription (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2006) Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, and Irwin Rose: The Ubiquitin-Mediated Controlled Protein Degradation System (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2004) Peter Agre and Roderick MacKinnon: Water and Ion Channels in Cell Membranes (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2003) John B. Fenn, Koichi Tanaka, and Kurt Wuthrich: Methods for Identification and Structure Analyses of Biological Macromolecules (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2002) Richard R. Ernst: High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1991) Paul D. Boyer, Sir John E. Walker, and Jens C. Skou: Enzymes and Enzymatic Conversion of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1997) Kary B. Mullis and Michael Smith: Methods in Gene Technology: Site-Directed Mutagenesis and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1993) Elias J. Corey: Theory and Methodology of Organic Synthesis: The Synthesis of Eicosanoids (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1990) Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech: Catalytic Property of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1989) Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, and Hartmut Michel: The Three- Dimensional Structure of a Photosynthetic Reaction Center (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1988) Bruce Merrifield: Methodology for Chemical Synthesis on a Solid Matrix (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1984) Aaron Klug: Crystallographic Electron Microscopy and Structural Elucidation of Nucleic Acid-Protein Complexes (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1982) Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert, and Frederick Sanger: The Biochemistry of Recombinant DNA and Determination of Base Sequences in Nucleic Acids (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1980) Peter Mitchell: Biological Energy Transfer - The Chemiosmotic Theory (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1978) John W. Cornforth: Stereochemistry of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions. Vladimir Prelog: Stereochemistry of Organic Molecules and Reactions (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1975) Christian B. Anfinsen, Stanford Moore, and William H. Stein: Studies on Enzyme Chemistry: Conformation, Chemical Structure, and Catalytic Activity of Ribonuclease (Nobel Prize in Chemistry,1972) Luis Leloir: Sugar Nucleotides and Their Function in the Biosynthesis of Carbohydrates (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1970) Robert Burns Woodward: For Outstanding Achievements in the Art of Organic Synthesis (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1965) Sir Robert Robinson: Investigations on Plant Products of Biological Importance, especially the Alkaloids (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1947) Sir Derek H. R. Barton: Development of the Concept of Conformation and Its Application in Chemistry (Nobel Prize in Chemistry,1969) Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin: X-Ray Structural Determination of Biologically Important Molecules (Nobel Prize in Chemistry,1964) Max F. Perutz and Sir John C. Kendrew: Three-Dimensional Structure of Globular Proteins (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1962) Frederick Sanger: The Structure of Insulin (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1958) Alexander R. Lord Todd: Studies of Nucleotides and Nucleotide Coenzymes (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1957) Vincent du Vigneaud: Biochemically Important Sulfur-Containing Compounds and the First Synthesis of a Polypeptide Hormone (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1955) Linus C. Pauling: The Nature of the Chemical Bond and Its Application to the Elucidation of the Structure of Complex Substances (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1954) James B. Sumner, John H. Northrop, and Wendell M. Stanley: Crystallization of Enzymes and Preparation of Enzymes and Virus Proteins in Pure Form (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1946) Adolf Butenandt and Leopold Ruzicka: Isolation and Structure Determination of Sex Hormones (Nobel Prize in Chemistry,1939) Richard Kuhn: Research on Carotenoids and Vitamins (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1938) Norman Haworth and Paul Karrer: Research on Carbohydrates, Carotenoids, Flavins, and Vitamins (Nobel Prize in Chemistry,1937) Hans Fisher: Structural and Synthetic Studies on Blood and Bile Pigments, Porphyrins, and Chlorophyll (Nobel Prize in Chemistry,1930) Arthur Harden and Hans von Euler-Chelpin: Fermentation of Sugar and Fermentative Enzymes (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1929) Eduard Buchner: Discovery of Cell-Free Fermentation (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1907) Adolf Windaus: Constitution of Sterols and Their Connection to Vitamins (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1928) Heinrich Wieland: Constitution of Bile Acids and Related Substances (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1927) Emil Fischer: Research on Sugar and Purine Syntheses (Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1902)
The History of Biomedical Research and a Celebration of Science Nobel Laureates: The Art and Science of Chemistry in Biomedical Research reviews the biomedical research conducted over the last 110 years for which Nobel Prizes in Chemistry have been awarded. It encompasses not only the initial discoveries made in each particular field of science that were honored with a Nobel Prize, but also the contributions of countless other scientists before and after the prize was given that greatly expanded the field. Presented in full color throughout, each chapter also presents historical and socioeconomic context associated with the Nobel Prizes, including brief remarks on historical events.