The Chemistry of Beer.pdf
Preface 1 Introduction Brief History The World of Beer Beer and Chemistry Alcohol and Prohibition Beer Tradition Chapter 1 Sources Chapter 1 Questions 2 What is Beer? Beer Ingredients Beer as Food How Beer is Made Chapter 2 Sources Chapter 2 Questions 3 Chemistry Basics Atoms Energy Levels and the Periodic Table Compounds Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds and Molecules Molecular Shape Polarity and Electronegativity Intermolecular Forces Molecular Kinetics Chemical Reactions and Equations Mixtures Chapter 3 Sources Chapter 3 Questions Measurement in Chemistry Numbers International System Mass Relationships in Compounds Composition of Mixtures Interchapter Source Interchapter Questions 4 Water The Water Molecule Acids and Bases pH Ions and Beer Water Treatment Chapter 4 Sources Chapter 4 Questions 5 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Structural Formulas Functional Groups Using the Functional Group Guide Chapter 5 Source Chapter 5 Questions 6 Sugars and Starches Monosaccharides Chirality Disaccharides Polysaccharides Chapter 6 Source Chapter 6 Questions 7 Milling and Mashing Milling Mashing Enzymes and Proteins Mashing Process Dextrins, Light Beer, and Malt Liquor Chapter 7 Sources Chapter 7 Questions 8 Wort Separation and Boiling Wort Separation Boiling Hops Hot Break Chilling Chapter 8 Sources Chapter 8 Questions 9 Fermentation The Anatomy of Brewing Energy and Bonds Glycolysis Ethanol Synthesis Aerobic and Anaerobic Reactions Higher Alcohols Esters Chapter 9 Sources Chapter 9 Questions 10 Tests and Measurements Carbohydrate Content Temperature Color Alcohol Content pH Sensory Analysis Chapter 10 Sources Chapter 10 Questions 11 The Chemistry of Flavor The Anatomy of Flavor Taste Aroma Mouth Feel Flavor Units Flavor Compounds in Beer Chapter 11 Sources Chapter 11 Questions 12 The Chemistry of Beer Styles Beer Style Families Realizing a Style Chapter 12 Sources Chapter 12 Questions 13 Foam and Haze Surfaces Surface Energy Surfactants Haze Foam Foam Issues Nitrogen and Widgets Chapter 13 Sources Chapter 13 Questions 14 Beer Packaging Casks and Kegs Glass Metals Aluminum Bottling and Canning Microbe Reduction Chapter 14 Sources Chapter 14 Questions 15 Beer Flavor Stability Typical Flavor Changes The Role of Oxygen Staling Prevention Chapter 15 Sources Chapter 15 Questions 16 Brewing at Home Safety Issues Full Mash Brewing Full Mash Brewing Procedure Extract Brewing Bottling Starter Brewing Systems Recipes Chapter 16 Sources Chapter 16 Questions Glossary Acknowledgements About the Author Photo Credits
Beer is among the world's oldest beverages, dating back to at least 6000 BC. Today beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage, supporting a brewing industry on a multinational scale and providing a livelihood to countless businesses, large and small. For anyone interested in making sense of the science behind the beer experience, here is the definitive guide to the chemistry of beer. The book explains the chemical basis of the brewing process, the chemistry of flavor, tests and measurements in brewing, and the chemistry of beer styles. The book also covers home brewing, with cost comparisons for different approaches. A must for home and craft brewers and chemistry and chemical engineering students.