Encyclopedia of Remote Sensing.pdf
Eni Njoku is the Principal Scientist and Supervisor of the Water and Carbon Cycles Group at the Jet Propulsion Lab of the California Institute of Technology. Born in November 6, 1917 in Ebem, Ohafia, Abia State, Professor Eni Njoku was educated at Ebem Primary School and attended Hope Waddell Training Institute, Calabar between 1933 and 1936. He went to Yaba Higher School (now Yaba College of Technology) Lagos in 1937. Eni Njoku studied botany at the University of Manchester in England. He graduated with a first class honours degree in 1947 and obtained his M.A. degree the following year. In 1954, he obtained his doctorate from the University of London. When he returned to Nigeria, Eni Njoku took up teaching appointment at the University of Ibadan as a lecturer. Later he became a senior lecturer and then professor. He was head and dean of the faculty of science. He was chairman of the Electricity Corporation of Nigeria in 1956. In 1962, he became the first vice-chancellor of the University of Lagos. Following a major crisis in 1965 over his re-appointment, he resigned and became a visiting professor at the Michigan State University, United States. In 1966, Njoku was made the vice-chancellor of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka where he remained till the outbreak of the civil war in 1967. Njoku served on the boards of the Commonwealth Scientific Committee, the United Nations Advisory Committee on the Application of Science and Technology as well as the UNESCO Advisory Committee in Natural Sciences. He also served in the councils of the Universities of Zambia and Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo). He wrote several books and articles in international journals. He received the honorary D.Sc. degree from the University of Nigeria in 1964, and in 1966 Michigan State University conferred on him an honorary doctor of laws degree and in 1973 Unilag awarded its first vice-chancellor an honorary D.Sc. degree. A scientifically and geographically diverse Editorial Advisory Board will be established.
Acoustic radiation.- Acoustic waves, propagation.- Acoustic waves, scattering.- Aeronet.- Aeronet for aerosols.- Aerosols.- Agricultural expansion and abandonment.- Agriculture.- Air pollution.- Atmosphere, measurements and applications.- Atmospheric global circulation modeling.- Atmospheric temperature.- Biogeochemical cycles.- Calibration and validation.- Calibration, microwave radiometers.- Calibration, optical/infrared active sensors.- Calibration, optical/infrared passive sensors.- Calibration, optical/infrared sensors.- Calibration, SARs.- Calibration, scatterometers.- Carbon management.- Cartography and mapping.- Climate data records.- Climate monitoring and prediction.- Climate variability and trends.- Cloud characterstics.- Cloud ice.- Cloud liquid water.- Coastal ecosystems.- Coastal pollution.- Commercial remote sensing.- Cosmic-ray hydrometrology: measuring soil moisture with cosmic-ray neutrons.- Cost benefit assessment.- Crop stress.- Crustal deformation.- Cryosphere and Polar Region observing system.- Cryosphere, climate change effects.- Cryosphere, climate change feedbacks.- Cryosphere, measurements and applications.- Data access.- Data archival and distribution.- Data archives and repositories.- Data assimilation.- Data integration.- Data mining.- Data policies.- Data processing and information retrieval.- Data processing, derived products.- Data processing, digital elevation model.- Data processing, digital surface model.- Data processing, microwave sensors.- Data processing, optical/infrared sensors.- Data processing, orthorectified products.- Data processing, SAR sensors.- Decision fusion for classification of multisource remote sensing data.- Deforestation.- Desertification.- Direct ocean surface velocity estimation from space: a new high resolution observation technique for routine monitoring.- Drought.- Earth magnetic field.- Earth radiation budget.- Earth system models.- Electromagnetic theory and wave propagation.- Emerging applications.- Emerging radiometer technologies.- Emerging technologies.- Emerging technologies, large antenna structures.- Emerging technologies, LIDAR.- Emerging technologies, radar.- Emerging technologies, sensor web.- End-to-end error analysis.- Environmental treaties.- Fields and radiation.- Fisheries.- Floods.- Forest composition.- Forest fires and burn severity.- Forest health.- Forest structure and biomass.- Forestry.- Forestry, mapping and inventory.- Forestry, succession.- Free-space optical communications.- Gamma and X radiation.- Gamma ray sensors.- Geodesy.- Geographic Information Systems.- Geographic Information Systems (GIS).- Geolocation.- Geology.- Geomorphology.- Geomorphology, deserts.- Geomorphology, wetlands.- Geophysical retrieval.- Geophysical retrieval, analytical methods.- Geophysical retrieval, inverse problems and estimation theory.- Geophysical retrieval, iterative methods.- Geophysical retrieval, neural network methods.- Geophysical retrieval, optimal estimation.- Geophysical retrieval, statistical methods.- Geophysical retrieval, time-series analysis.- Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO).- Global climate observing system.- Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS).- Global land observing system.- Global oceans observing system.- Global programs, operational systems.- Global warming.- GPS, occultation systems.- GPS, reflection systems.- Gravity field.- Greenhouse gases.- Ice sheets and ice volume.- Icebergs.- Image analysis.- Image analysis, atmospheric correction.- Image analysis, multispectral transforms.- Image analysis, object oriented analysis.- Image analysis, spectral mixture analysis.- Insurance industry.- International collaboration.- Ionospheric propagation.- Irrigation management.- Lagrangian point orbits.- Land cover & land use change.- Land surface albedo.- Land surface roughness.- Land surface, emissivity.- Land surface, freeze/thaw state.- Land surface, temperature.- Land surface, topography.- Land use planning.- Land, measurements and applications.- Land-atmosphere interactions.- Land-ocean fluxes.- Landslides.- Laser systems.- Launch vehicles.- Law and remote sensing.- Lidar systems.- Lightning.- Limb sounding.- Low Earth Orbit (LEO).- Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO).- Magnetic field.- Map projections.- Media, electromagnetic characteristics.- Medium Earth Orbit (MEO).- Microsatellites.- Microwave antennas.- Microwave antennas, arrays.- Microwave horn antennas.- Microwave radiometers.- Microwave radiometers, conventional.- Microwave radiometers, correlation.- Microwave radiometers, interferometers.- Microwave radiometers, polarimeters.- Microwave sensors.- Microwave, atmospheric absorption and transmission.- Microwave, dielectric properties of materials.- Microwave, radiative transfer.- Microwave, scattering by particulates and hydrometeors.- Microwave, subsurface propagation and scattering.- Microwave, surface scattering and emission.- Millimeter-wave radiometers.- Mission control.- Mission costs of earth-observing satellite.- Mission management.- Mission operations.- Mission operations, cost/budget planning and management.- Mission operations, data transmission.- Mission operations, ground data systems.- Mission operations, orbital sampling and coverage.- Mission operations, receiving stations.- Mission operations, schedule management.- Mission operations, science applications/requirements.- Molniya orbit.- Multi-sensor retrievals.- Observational platforms, aircraft and UAVs.- Observational platforms, interplanetary probes.- Observational platforms, radiosondes/sounding rockets.- Observational platforms, satellites.- Observational platforms, space shuttles and space stations.- Observational platforms, surface-based.- Observational platforms, UAVs.- Observational systems.- Observational systems, airborne.- Observational systems, satellite.- Observed solid Earth mass transport.- Ocean data telemetry.- Ocean freak waves.- Ocean internal waves.- Ocean measurements and applications, ocean color.- Ocean modeling and data assimilation.- Ocean surface topography.- Ocean, acoustic tomography.- Ocean, climate feedbacks.- Ocean, measurements and applications.- Ocean-atmosphere fluxes.- Operational transition.- Optical/infrared sensors, active.- Optical/infrared sensors, passive.- Optical/infrared, atmospheric absorption/transmission and media spectral properties.- Optical/infrared, radiative transfer.- Optical/infrared, scattering by aerosols and hydrometeors.- Orbit determination.- Orbital debris.- Pattern recognition and classification of remote sensing data.- Polar ice dynamics.- Polar ocean navigation.- Policies and economics.- Population studies.- Precision agriculture.- Processing levels.- Public-private partnerships.- Radar, altimeters.- Radar, correlation.- Radar, interferometers.- Radar, meteorological.- Radar, polarimeters.- Radar, scatterometers.- Radar, synthetic aperture.- Radars.- Radiation, Earth.- Radiation, electromagnetic.- Radiation, galactic and cosmic background.- Radiation, multiple scattering.- Radiation, particulate scattering.- Radiation, polarization and coherence.- Radiation, scattering.- Radiation, solar and lunar.- Radiation, sources.- Radiation, surface scattering.- Radiation, volume scattering.- Radiative transfer, solution techniques.- Radiative transfer, theory.- Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) in passive microwave remote sensing.- Rainfall.- Rangelands and grazing.- Reflected solar radiation sensors, multi-angle Imaging.- Reflected solar radiation sensors, multispectral.- Reflected solar radiation sensors, polarimetric.- Reflected solar radiation sensors, radiometric.- Reflector antennas.- Remote sensing and geologic structure.- Remote sensing policies.- Remote sensing policies and scientific research.- Remote sensing, historical perspective.- Remote sensing, overview.- Remote sensing, physics and techniques.- Resource exploration.- SAR based bathymetry.- Satellite orbits.- Satellites, attitude control systems.- Satellites, command and data handling systems.- Satellites, constellations and formation flying.- Satellites, power, thermal and structural systems.- Satellites, propulsion systems.- Satellites, spacecraft subsystems.- Satellites, telecommunication systems.- Sea ice.- Sea ice albedo.- Sea ice concentration and extent.- Sea level rise.- Sea surface salinity: satellite semote sensing: salinity measurements.- Sea surface temperature.- Sea surface wind/stress vector.- Sensors and techniques.- Severe storms.- Snowfall.- Soil moisture.- Soil properties.- Space environment (measurements and applications).- Spatial transformations & gridding.- State and local government.- Stratospheric ozone.- Subsidence.- Sun photometers.- Surface imaging.- Surface radiative fluxes.- Surface truth.- Surface water.- Terrestrial snow.- Thermal radiation sensors (emitted).- Trace gases, stratosphere and mesosphere.- Trace gases, tropospheric: detection from space.- Trafficability of desert terrains.- Tropospheric winds.- Ultraviolet remote sensing.- Ultraviolet sensors.- Vegetation indices.- Vegetation, phenology.- Vegetation, structure & Biomass.- Vertical sounding.- Volcanism.- Water and energy cycles.- Water resources.- Water vapor.- Weather prediction.- Wetlands
Remote sensing has revolutionized the scientific study of the Earth by enabling measurements of more detailed and hitherto unexplored phenomena with spatially-extensive and global perspectives. Various disciplines and industries have benefited from the dramatic discoveries enabled by remote sensing. This volume cuts across these disciplines and describes the basic foundations, principles and state of the art of remote sensing. It covers the development of remote sensing, the theoretical underpinnings, forward modeling, commercial applications, and global and international coordination and policy. This first encyclopaedic reference on remote sensing describes the concepts, techniques, instrumentation, data analysis, interpretation, and applications of remote sensing, both airborne and space-based. Scientists, engineers, academics, and students can quickly access answers to their reference questions and direction for further study.