Clean Coal Technology.pdf
Dr. P. Jayarama Reddy is an energy consultant to the solar photovoltaic industry and serves as a board member of several international renewable energy companies related to solar module fabrication, power generation from biomass and municipal solid waste. He is a retired professor of Physics (Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi, India) and has worked in various big research laboratories at Cornell University (US), Imperial College London (UK), Charles University (Czech Republic), and Stuttgart University (Germany). Dr. Reddy is a Fellow of the Institute of Physics (UK) and has published a number of papers on polycrystalline thin film solar materials and cells, as well as the books Science and Technology of Photovoltaics, published by BS Publications / CRC Press/Balkema, and Solar Power Generation, published by CRC Press/Balkema.
1. Introduction 2. Global Primary energy consumption 2.1 Region-wise & Fuel-wise 2.2 Projection through 2035 2.3 World Electricity generation: Current & future 3. Coal: Formation, Classification, Reserves & Production 3.1 Coal formation 3.2 Rank of coal 3.3 Composition of coal 3.4 Structure of coal 3.5 Classification & analysis 3.6 Coal uses 3.7 Coal energy density 3.8 Global coal reserves: Regional distribution 3.9 Global coal production 3.10 Production projections through 2035 4. Natural gas: Reserves, emissions and costs 5. Pollution from Coal Combustion 5.1 Energy related CO2 emissions 5.2 Hazardous Pollutants 5.3 Health & Environmental effects 5.4 Control technologies 6. Coal Treatment & Emissions Control methods 6.1 Coal treatment 6.1.1 Introduction 6.1.2 Coal benefaction 6.1.3 Pre-drying benefits 6.2 Emissions control technologies 6.2.1During combustion Processes 6.2.2 Post combustion processes 7. Coal-based Power generation 7.1 Conventional PC power plant 7.2 Steam properties 7.3 Steam Generators (Boilers) 7.3.1 Early steam boilers 7.3.2 High pressure boilers 7.3.3 Performance evaluation 7.4 Steam Turbines & Power cycles 7.5 Steam condenser 8. Advanced Coal Power plant Technologies Section A: Coal combustion technologies 8.1 Subcritical PC technology 8.2 Supercritical & Ultra supercritical PC technology 8.3 Fluidized Bed combustion (BFBC, CFBC, PFBC) 8.4 Performance & Costs Section B: Coal conversion technologies 8.5 Gasification 8.5.1 Chemistry of gasification 8.5.2 Generic types of gasifiers 8.5.3 Commercial gasifiers 8.5.4 Syngas clean up 8.5.5 Partial gasification combined cycle 8.6 Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle 8.6.1 Environmental performance 8.6.2 Economics 8.6.3 R&D areas for improvement 8.6.4 Outlook for IGCC 8.7 Hybrid gasification 8.8 Underground Coal gasification 9. Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Transport, Storage & Estimated capacity 9.3 Capture technologies 9.3.1 Post combustion capture 9.3.2 Pre combustion capture 9.3.3 Oxy fuel combustion capture 9.3.4 Energy Price in capture technologies 9.3.5 Partial capture for IGCC plants 9.4 Performance & Costs of generating technologies 9.5 Policy framework for deployment 9.6 Present Status of CO2 capture 9.7 Advanced capture systems 9.8 Technology Roadmap for CCS 9.9 Retrofits for carbon capture 9.10 Capture ready units 10. Coal-to-Liquid fuels 10.1 Chemistry of CTL synthesis 10.2 Technology choices: DCL & ICL 10.3 Outlook for CTL 11. CCTs in Developing Countries 11.1 State of affairs 11.2 CCS in developing countries 11.3 Case study: China 11.4 Case study: India 12. Outlook for Coal-based Power generation Annexures
This book discusses clean coal technology (CCT), the latest generation of coal technology that controls pollutants and performs with improved generating efficiency. CCT involves processes that effectively control emissions and result in highly efficient combustion without significantly contributing to global warming. Basic principles, operational aspects, current status, on-going developments and future directions will be covered. The implementation of CCT in countries with large coal reserves and that utilize large quantities of coal for their energy supply is discussed. These countries are also the foremost CO2 emitters globally and their energy policies are crucial to international efforts to combat global warming. This work will be useful for students and professionals in the fields of fuel, mechanical, chemical and environmental engineering and Clean Tech.