The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe.pdf
“A comprehensive guide to physics’ big picture, and to the thoughts of one of the world’s most original thinkers.”—The New York Times
“Simply astounding. . . . Gloriously variegated. . . . Pure delight. . . . It is shocking that so much can be explained so well. . . . Penrose gives us something that has been missing from the public discourse on science lately–a reason to live, something to look forward to.” —American Scientist
“A remarkable book . . . teeming with delights.” —Nature
“This is his magnum opus, the culmination of an already stellar career and a comprehensive summary of the current state of physics and cosmology. It should be read by anyone entering the field and referenced by everyone working in it.” —The New York Sun
“Extremely comprehensive. . . . The Road to Reality unscores the fact that Penrose is one of the world’s most original thinkers.” —Tucson Citizen
“What a joy it is to read a book that doesn't simplify, doesn't dodge the difficult questions, and doesn't always pretend to have answers. . . . Penrose’s appetite is heroic, his knowledge encyclopedic, his modesty a reminder that not all physicists claim to be able to explain the world in 250 pages.”
—The Times (London)
“For physics fans, the high point of the year will undoubtedly be The Road to Reality.”
“A truly remarkable book...Penrose does much to reveal the beauty and subtlety that connects nature and the human imagination, demonstrating that the quest to understand the reality of our physical world, and the extent and limits of our mental capacities, is an awesome, never-ending journey rather than a one-way cul-de-sac.”—London Sunday Times
“Penrose’s work is genuinely magnificent, and the most stimulating book I have read in a long time.”—Scotland on Sunday
“Science needs more people like Penrose, willing and able to point out the flaws in fashionable models from a position of authority and to signpost alternative roads to follow.”—The Independent
Roger Penrose is Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at Oxford University. He has received a number of prizes and awards, including the 1988 Wolf Prize for physics, which he shared with Stephen Hawking for their joint contribution to our understanding of the universe. His books include The Emperor's New Mind, Shadows of the Mind, and The Nature of Space and Time, which he wrote with Hawking. He has lectured extensively at universities throughout America. He lives in Oxford.
1 The roots of science
1.1 The quest for the forces that shape the world
1.2 Mathematical truth
1.3 Is Plato’s mathematical world ‘real’?
1.4 Three worlds and three deep mysteries
1.5 The Good, the True, and the Beautiful
2 An ancient theorem and a modern question
2.1 The Pythagorean theorem
2.2 Euclid’s postulates
2.3 Similar-areas proof of the Pythagorean theorem
2.4 Hyperbolic geometry: conformal picture
2.5 Other representations of hyperbolic geometry
2.6 Historical aspects of hyperbolic geometry
2.7 Relation to physical space
3 Kinds of number in the physical world
3.1 A Pythagorean catastrophe?
3.2 The real-number system
3.3 Real numbers in the physical world
3.4 Do natural numbers need the physical world?
3.5 Discrete numbers in the physical world
4 Magical complex numbers
4.1 The magic number ‘i’
4.2 Solving equations with complex numbers
4.3 Convergence of power series
4.4 Caspar Wessel’s complex plane
4.5 How to construct the Mandelbrot set
5 Geometry of logarithms, powers, and roots
5.1 Geometry of complex algebra
5.2 The idea of the complex logarithm
5.3 Multiple valuedness, natural logarithms
5.4 Complex powers
5.5 Some relations to modern particle physics
6 Real-number calculus
6.1 What makes an honest function?
6.2 Slopes of functions
6.3 Higher derivatives; C1-smooth functions
6.4 The ‘Eulerian’ notion of a function?
6.5 The rules of differentiation
7 Complex-number calculus
7.1 Complex smoothness; holomorphic functions
7.2 Contour integration
7.3 Power series from complex smoothness
7.4 Analytic continuation
8 Riemann surfaces and complex mappings
8.1 The idea of a Riemann surface
8.2 Conformal mappings
8.3 The Riemann sphere
8.4 The genus of a compact Riemann surface
8.5 The Riemann mapping theorem
9 Fourier decomposition and hyperfunctions
9.1 Fourier series
9.2 Functions on a circle
9.3 Frequency splitting on the Riemann sphere
9.4 The Fourier transform
9.5 Frequency splitting from the Fourier transform
9.6 What kind of function is appropriate?
10.1 Complex dimensions and real dimensions
10.2 Smoothness, partial derivatives
10.3 Vector Fields and 1-forms
10.4 Components, scalar products
10.5 The Cauchy–Riemann equations
11 Hypercomplex numbers
11.1 The algebra of quaternions
11.2 The physical role of quaternions?
11.3 Geometry of quaternions
11.4 How to compose rotations
11.5 Clifford algebras
11.6 Grassmann algebras
12 Manifolds of n dimensions
12.1 Why study higher-dimensional manifolds?
12.2 Manifolds and coordinate patches
12.3 Scalars, vectors, and covectors
12.4 Grassmann products
12.5 Integrals of forms
12.6 Exterior derivative
12.7 Volume element; summation convention
12.8 Tensors; abstract-index and diagrammatic notation
12.9 Complex manifolds
13 Symmetry groups
13.1 Groups of transformations
13.2 Subgroups and simple groups
13.3 Linear transformations and matrices
13.4 Determinants and traces
13.5 Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
13.6 Representation theory and Lie algebras
13.7 Tensor representation spaces; reducibility
13.8 Orthogonal groups
13.9 Unitary groups
13.10 Symplectic groups
14 Calculus on manifolds
14.1 Differentiation on a manifold?
14.2 Parallel transport
14.3 Covariant derivative
14.4 Curvature and torsion
14.5 Geodesics, parallelograms, and curvature
14.6 Lie derivative
14.7 What a metric can do for you
14.8 Symplectic manifolds
15 Fibre bundles and gauge connections
15.1 Some physical motivations for fibre bundles
15.2 The mathematical idea of a bundle
15.3 Cross-sections of bundles
15.4 The Clifford bundle
15.5 Complex vector bundles, (co)tangent bundles
15.6 Projective spaces
15.7 Non-triviality in a bundle connection
15.8 Bundle curvature
16 The ladder of infinity
16.1 Finite fields
16.2 A Wnite or inWnite geometry for physics?
16.3 Different sizes of infinity
16.4 Cantor’s diagonal slash
16.5 Puzzles in the foundations of mathematics
16.6 Turing machines and Gödel’s theorem
16.7 Sizes of infinity in physics
17.1 The spacetime of Aristotelian physics
17.2 Spacetime for Galilean relativity
17.3 Newtonian dynamics in spacetime terms
17.4 The principle of equivalence
17.5 Cartan’s ‘Newtonian spacetime’
17.6 The fixed finite speed of light
17.7 Light cones
17.8 The abandonment of absolute time
17.9 The spacetime for Einstein’s general relativity
18 Minkowskian geometry
18.1 Euclidean and Minkowskian 4-space
18.2 The symmetry groups of Minkowski space
18.3 Lorentzian orthogonality; the ‘clock paradox’
18.4 Hyperbolic geometry in Minkowski space
18.5 The celestial sphere as a Riemann sphere
18.6 Newtonian energy and (angular) momentum
18.7 Relativistic energy and (angular) momentum
19 The classical Welds of Maxwell and Einstein
19.1 Evolution away from Newtonian dynamics
19.2 Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory
19.3 Conservation and flux laws in Maxwell theory
19.4 The Maxwell Weld as gauge curvature
19.5 The energy–momentum tensor
19.6 Einstein’s field equation
19.7 Further issues: cosmological constant; Weyl tensor
19.8 Gravitational field energy
20 Lagrangians and Hamiltonians
20.1 The magical Lagrangian formalism
20.2 The more symmetrical Hamiltonian picture
20.3 Small oscillations
20.4 Hamiltonian dynamics as symplectic geometry
20.5 Lagrangian treatment of fields
20.6 How Lagrangians drive modern theory
21 The quantum particle
21.1 Non-commuting variables
21.2 Quantum Hamiltonians
21.3 Schrödinger’s equation
21.4 Quantum theory’s experimental background
21.5 Understanding wave–particle duality
21.6 What is quantum ‘reality’?
21.7 The ‘holistic’ nature of a wavefunction
21.8 The mysterious ‘quantum jumps’
21.9 Probability distribution in a wavefunction
21.10 Position states
21.11 Momentum-space description
22 Quantum algebra, geometry, and spin
22.1 The quantum procedures U and R
22.2 The linearity of U and its problems for R
22.3 Unitary structure, Hilbert space, Dirac notation
22.4 Unitary evolution: Schrödinger and Heisenberg
22.5 Quantum ‘observables’
22.6 YES/NO measurements; projectors
22.7 Null measurements; helicity
22.8 Spin and spinors
22.9 The Riemann sphere of two-state systems
22.10 Higher spin: Majorana picture
22.11 Spherical harmonics
22.12 Relativistic quantum angular momentum
22.13 The general isolated quantum object
23 The entangled quantum world
23.1 Quantum mechanics of many-particle systems
23.2 Hugeness of many-particle state space
23.3 Quantum entanglement; Bell inequalities
23.4 Bohm-type EPR experiments
23.5 Hardy’s EPR example: almost probability-free
23.6 Two mysteries of quantum entanglement
23.7 Bosons and fermions
23.8 The quantum states of bosons and fermions
23.9 Quantum teleportation
24 Dirac’s electron and antiparticles
24.1 Tension between quantum theory and relativity
24.2 Why do antiparticles imply quantum fields?
24.3 Energy positivity in quantum mechanics
24.4 Diffculties with the relativistic energy formula
24.5 The non-invariance of d/dt
24.6 Clifford–Dirac square root of wave operator
24.7 The Dirac equation
24.8 Dirac’s route to the positron
25 The standard model of particle physics
25.1 The origins of modern particle physics
25.2 The zigzag picture of the electron
25.3 Electroweak interactions; reflection asymmetry
25.4 Charge conjugation, parity, and time reversal
25.5 The electroweak symmetry group
25.6 Strongly interacting particles
25.7 ‘Coloured quarks’
25.8 Beyond the standard model?
26 Quantum field theory
26.1 Fundamental status of QFT in modern theory
26.2 Creation and annihilation operators
26.3 Infinite-dimensional algebras
26.4 Antiparticles in QFT
26.5 Alternative vacua
26.6 Interactions: Lagrangians and path integrals
26.7 Divergent path integrals: Feynman’s response
26.8 Constructing Feynman graphs; the S-matrix
26.10 Feynman graphs from Lagrangians
26.11 Feynman graphs and the choice of vacuum
27 The Big Bang and its thermodynamic legacy
27.1 Time symmetry in dynamical evolution
27.2 Submicroscopic ingredients
27.4 The robustness of the entropy concept
27.5 Derivation of the second law—or not?
27.6 Is the whole universe an ‘isolated system’?
27.7 The role of the Big Bang
27.8 Black holes
27.9 Event horizons and spacetime singularities
27.10 Black-hole entropy
27.12 Conformal diagrams
27.13 Our extraordinarily special Big Bang
28 Speculative theories of the early universe
28.1 Early-universe spontaneous symmetry breaking
28.2 Cosmic topological defects
28.3 Problems for early-universe symmetry breaking
28.4 Inflationary cosmology
28.5 Are the motivations for inflation valid?
28.6 The anthropic principle
28.7 The Big Bang’s special nature: an anthr...
Am-tep was the King’s chief craftsman, an artist of consummate skills. It was night, and he lay sleeping on his workshop couch, tired after a handsomely productive evening’s work. But his sleep was restless – perhaps from an intangible tension that had seemed to be in the air. Indeed, he was not certain that he was asleep at all when it happened. Daytime had come – quite suddenly – when his bones told him that surely it must still be night.
He stood up abruptly. Something was odd. The dawn’s light could not be in the north; yet the red light shone alarmingly through his broad window that looked out northwards over the sea. He moved to the window and stared out, incredulous in amazement. The Sun had never before risen in the north! In his dazed state, it took him a few moments to realize that this could not possibly be the Sun. It was a distant shaft of a deep fiery red light that beamed vertically upwards from the water into the heavens.
As he stood there, a dark cloud became apparent at the head of the beam, giving the whole structure the appearance of a distant giant parasol, glowing evilly, with a smoky flaming staff. The parasol’s hood began to spread and darken – a daemon from the underworld. The night had been clear, but now the stars disappeared one by one, swallowed up behind this advancing monstrous creature from Hell.
Though terror must have been his natural reaction, he did not move, transfixed for several minutes by the scene’s perfect symmetry and awesome beauty. But then the terrible cloud began to bend slightly to the east, caught up by the prevailing winds. Perhaps he gained some comfort from this and the spell was momentarily broken. But apprehension at once returned to him as he seemed to sense a strange disturbance in the ground beneath, accompanied by ominous-sounding rumblings of a nature quite unfamiliar to him. He began to wonder what it was that could have caused this fury. Never before had he witnessed a God’s anger of such magnitude.
His first reaction was to blame himself for the design on the sacrificial cup that he had just completed – he had worried about it at the time. Had his depiction of the Bull-God not been sufficiently fearsome? Had that god been offended? But the absurdity of this thought soon struck him. The fury he had just witnessed could not have been the result of such a trivial action, and was surely not aimed at him specifically. But he knew that there would be trouble at the Great Palace. The Priest-King would waste no time in attempting to appease this Daemon-God. There would be sacrifices. The traditional offerings of fruits or even animals would not suffice to pacify an anger of this magnitude. The sacrifices would have to be human.
Quite suddenly, and to his utter surprise, he was blown backwards across the room by an impulsive blast of air followed by a violent wind. The noise was so extreme that he was momentarily deafened. Many of his beautifully adorned pots were whisked from their shelves and smashed to pieces against the wall behind. As he lay on the floor in a far corner of the room where he had been swept away by the blast, he began to recover his senses, and saw that the room was in turmoil. He was horrified to see one of his favourite great urns shattered to small pieces, and the wonderfully detailed designs, which he had so carefully crafted, reduced to nothing.
Am-tep arose unsteadily from the floor and after a while again approached the window, this time with considerable trepidation, to re-examine that terrible scene across the sea. Now he thought he saw a disturbance, illuminated by that far-off furnace, coming towards him. This appeared to be a vast trough in the water, moving rapidly towards the shore, followed by a cliff-like wall of wave. He again became transfixed, watching the approaching wave begin to acquire gigantic proportions. Eventually the disturbance reached the shore and the sea immediately before him drained away, leaving many ships stranded on the newly formed beach. Then the cliff-wave entered the vacated region and struck with a terrible violence. Without exception the ships were shattered, and many nearby houses instantly destroyed. Though the water rose to great heights in the air before him, his own house was spared, for it sat on high ground a good way from the sea.
The Great Palace too was spared. But Am-tep feared that worse might come, and he was right – though he knew not how right he was. He did know, however, that no ordinary human sacrifice of a slave could now be sufficient. Something more would be needed to pacify the tempestuous anger of this terrible God. His thoughts turned to his sons and daughters, and to his newly born grandson. Even they might not be safe.
Am-tep had been right to fear new human sacrifices. A young girl and a youth of good birth had been soon apprehended and taken to a nearby temple, high on the slopes of a mountain. The ensuing ritual was well under way when yet another catastrophe struck. The ground shook with devastating violence, whence the temple roof fell in, instantly killing all the priests and their intended sacrificial victims. As it happened, they would lie there in mid-ritual – entombed for over three-and-a-half millennia!
The devastation was frightful, but not final. Many on the island where Am-tep and his people lived survived the terrible earthquake, though the Great Palace was itself almost totally destroyed. Much would be rebuilt over the years. Even the Palace would recover much of its original splendour, constructed on the ruins of the old. Yet Am-tep had vowed to leave the island. His world had now changed irreparably.
In the world he knew, there had been a thousand years of peace, prosperity, and culture where the Earth-Goddess had reigned. Wonderful art had been allowed to flourish. There was much trade with neighbouring lands. The magnificent Great Palace was a huge luxurious labyrinth, a virtual city in itself, adorned by superb frescoes of animals and flowers. There was running water, excellent drainage, and flushed sewers. War was almost unknown and defences unnecessary. Now, Am-tep perceived the Earth-Goddess overthrown by a Being with entirely different values.
It was some years before Am-tep actually left the island, accompanied by his surviving family, on a ship rebuilt by his youngest son, who was a skilled carpenter and seaman. Am-tep’s grandson had developed into an alert child, with an interest in everything in the world around. The voyage took some days, but the weather had been supremely calm. One clear night, Am-tep was explaining to his grandson about the patterns in the stars, when an odd thought overtook him: The patterns of stars had been disturbed not one iota from what they were before the Catastrophe of the emergence of the terrible daemon.
Am-tep knew these patterns well, for he had a keen artist’s eye. Surely, he thought, those tiny candles of light in the sky should have been blown at least a little from their positions by the violence of that night, just as his pots had been smashed and his great urn shattered. The Moon also had kept her face, just as before, and her route across the star-filled heavens had changed not one whit, as far as Am-tep could tell. For many moons after the Catastrophe, the skies had appeared different. There had been darkness and strange clouds, and the Moon and Sun had sometimes worn unusual colours. But this had now passed, and their motions seemed utterly undisturbed. The tiny stars, likewise, had been quite unmoved.
If the heavens had shown such little concern for the Catastrophe, having a stature far greater even than that terrible Daemon, Am-tep reasoned, why should the forces controlling the Daemon itself show concern for what the little people on the island had been doing, with their foolish rituals and human sacrifice? He felt embarrassed by his own foolish thoughts at the time, that the daemon might be concerned by the mere patterns on his pots.
Yet Am-tep was still troubled by the question ‘why?’ What deep forces control the behaviour of the world, and why do they sometimes burst forth in violent and seemingly incomprehensible ways? He shared his questions with his grandson, but there were no answers.
. . .
A century passed by, and then a millennium, and still there were no answers.
. . .
Amphos the craftsman had lived all his life in the same small town as his father and his father before him, and his father’s father before that. He made his living constructing beautifully decorated gold bracelets, earrings, ceremonial cups, and other fine products of his artistic skills. Such work had been the family trade for some forty generations – a line unbroken since Am-tep had settled there eleven hundred years before.
But it was not just artistic skills that had been passed down from generation to generation. Am-tep’s questions troubled Amphos just as they had troubled Am-tep earlier. The great story of the Catastrophe that destroyed an ancient peaceful civilization had been handed down from father to son. Am-tep’s perception of the Catastrophe had also survived with his descendants. Amphos, too, understood that the heavens had a magnitude and stature so great as to be quite unconcerned by that terrible event. Nevertheless, the event had had a catastrophic effect on the little people with their cities and their human sacrifices and insignificant religious rituals. Thus, by comparison, the event itself must have been the result of enormous forces quite unconcerned by those trivial actions of human beings. Yet the nature of those forces was as unknown in Amphos’s day as it was to Am-tep.
Amphos had studied the structure of plants, insects and other small animals, and crystalline rocks. His keen eye for observation had served him well in his decorative designs. He took an interest in agriculture and was fascinated by the growth of wheat and other plants fr...
Roger Penrose, one of the most accomplished scientists of our time, presents the only comprehensive and comprehensible account of the physics of the universe. From the very first attempts by the Greeks to grapple with the complexities of our known world to the latest application of infinity in physics, The Road to Reality carefully explores the movement of the smallest atomic particles and reaches into the vastness of intergalactic space. Here, Penrose examines the mathematical foundations of the physical universe, exposing the underlying beauty of physics and giving us one the most important works in modern science writing.