Practical Evaluation and Testing of Plastics.pdf
Filling a need, this ready reference brings together the hard-to-get and recently acquired knowledge usually only found scattered in the original literature.
Following an introduction to plastics as a class of engineering materials and an overview of their properties, the book comprehensively covers the characterization and quality control of manufactured plastic components, including an exhaustive treatment of the possible flaws of plastics inadvertently introduced during manufacturing along with viable solutions to prevent these faults. The second part is concerned with the testing of the resulting end products by various physical and chemical methods on the nano-, meso- and macroscale. An appendix with thermoanalytic data and international standards for the most commonly used polymers in plastics engineering rounds off the text.
Written by experienced academics and industrial researchers and developers who intimately know the problems faced by plastics engineers in their daily work - as well as the solutions - this book provides first-hand practical knowledge and in-depth discussions for industrial chemists and materials scientists alike.
Achim Frick has obtained his academic degrees (MSc, PhD) from the University of Stuttgart, Germany. He spent several years in industry before taking up his present professorship at Aalen University. Professor Frick is Head of the Institute of Polymer Science and Processing and has authored more than seventy scientific papers and two book publications. Being also Head of the Polymer Engineering Transfer Center PETZ, he has served national and international industries with more than 300 material science reports. Since more than ten years he is also offering training courses to industry in polymer engineering subjects.
Claudia Stern has obtained her PhD from University of Twente, The Netherlands. She is senior scientist in Research & Development in the field of polymer engineering field at ElringKlinger Kunststofftechnik AG and has authored several scientific publications and two books.
Ricardo Zednik obtained his PhD in Materials Science and Engineering from Stanford University, USA. He is a senior engineer with Exponent Engineering and Scientific Consulting and lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Santa Clara University. He is particularly interested in the mechanical behavior of materials, including thin-films and functional coatings, metals, and engineering ceramics. He has worked in the electronics industry for Fujitsu Laboratories Limited in Atsugi, Japan, and in the energy industry for Halliburton Energy Services in Houston, Texas, and Manchester, England.
INTRODUCTION TO PLASTICS
Structure and Behavior of Plastics: Influence of Molecular Weight on Material Properties, Homo- and Co-Polymers, Polymer Blends
Mechanical Behavior of Polymers: Creep, Glass Transition Temperature, Melt, Solidification, Time Dependent Deformation, Time Dependence and Thermal Activation
Uniaxial Stress-Strain Behavior
Processing of Polymers: Preconditioning, Production Processes, Effects on Quality
MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF MANUFACTURED PLASTIC COMPONENTS
Typical Flaws: Filamentation, Cold Slogs, Jetting, Inclusions, Diesel Effect, Incomplete Fill, Shrink Marks, Flash, Contraction Cavities, Bubbles, Weld Lines, Flow Figures, Dark Spots, Record Effect, Exfoliation, Fouling, Demolding Errors, Warpage, Shrinkage, Whitening, Cracking
Problems and Possible Solutions: Material Qualification, Component Qualification, Material Identification, Fillers, Recyclate Processing, Material Degradation, Environmental Compatibility, Swelling, Inconsistent Workability, Pre-Drying, Thermal History, Effects of Color and Color Changes, Effects of Impact Toughness Modifiers, Orientation, Internal Stresses, Warpage, Quality Control, Failure Analysis, Internal Flaws, Tribological Properties, Tool Construction and Design, Manufacturing Process
Purpose of Material Testing
Sample Preparation and Test Execution: Sampling, Types of Samples, Test Execution
Presentation of Results /
Testing Macromolecular Properties: Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Gel Permeation Chromatography,
Evaluating Melt Properties: Rheometry, Viscometry
Evaluating the Geometry of Molded Parts: Dimensions, Shrinkage, Warpage
Evaluating the Structure of Molded Parts: Orientation, Morphology, Atomic Force Microscopy, Ultrasound, X-Ray
Mechanical Testing: Quasi-Static Stress, Impact Testing, Long-Term Static Load, Long-Term Dynamic Loading, Temperature Effects
Optical Evaluation: Visual Inspection, Microscopic Inspection, Color Measurement
Thermal Analysis: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Thermomechanic Analysis (TMA) -
Dilatometry, Hot Stage Microscopy, Determining Operating Temperatures
Chemical Testing: Chemical Resistance, Stress Cracking
Physical Properties: Density, Mass, Moisture and Water Absorption, Determining Ash Content, Weathering
Flammability Tests: Flammability, UL Flammability, Evaluating Burn Behavior by Oxygen Index Method
Thermoanalytic Data for Polymers