Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 What is linguistics?
1.1.1 Definition
1.1.2 The scope of linguistics
1.1.3 Some important distinctions in linguistics
1.2 What is language?
1.2.1 Definitions of language
1.2.2 Design features of language
1.2.3 Funcions of language
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Chapter 2 Phonology
2.1 The phonic medium of language
2.2 Phonetics
2.2.1 What is phonetics?
2.2.2 Organs of speech
2.2.3 Orthographic representation of speech sounds——broad and narrow transcriptions
2.2.4 Classification of English speech sounds
2.3 Phonology
2.3.1 Phonology and phonetics
2.3.2 Phone, phoneme, and allophone
2.3.3 Phonemic contrast, complementary distribution, and minimal pair
2.3.4 Some rules in phonology
2.3.5 Suprasegmental features —— stress, tone, intonation
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Chapter 3 Morphology
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Open class and closed class
3.3 Morphemes —— the minimal units of meaning
3.4 Analyzing word structures
3.5 Derivational and inflectional morphemes
3.6 Morphological rules of word formation
3.7 Derivation
3.8 Compounds
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Chapter 4 Syntax
4.1 What is syntax?
4.2 Categories
4.2.1 Word-level categories
4.2.2 Phrase categories and their structures
4.3 Phrase structure rule
4.3.1 XP rule
4.3.2 Coordination rule
4.4 Phrase element,,
4.4.1 Specifiers
4.4.2 Complements
4.4.3 Modifiers
4.5 Sentences (The S rule)
4.6 Transformations
4.6.1 Auxiliary movement
4.6.2 Do insertion
4.6.3 Deep structure and surface structure
4.6.4 Wh movement
4.6.5 Move α and constraints on transformations
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Chapter 5 Semantics
5.1 What is semantics?
5.2 Some views concerning the study of meaning
5.2.1 The naming theory
5.2.2 The conceptualist view
5.2.3 Contextualism
5.2.4 Behaviorism
5.3 Lexical meaning
5.3, 1 Sense and reference
5.3.2 Major sense relations
5.4 Sense relations between sentences
5.5 Analysis of meaning
5.5.1 Componential analysis ——a way to analyze lexical meaning
5.5.2 Predication analysis -a way to analyze sentence meaning
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Chapter 6 Pragmatics
6.1 Some basic notions
6.1.1 Definition
6.1.2 Pragmatics vs. semantics
6.1.3 Context
6.1.4 Sentence meaning vs. utterance meaning
6.2 Speech act theory
6.2.1 Austin's model of speech acts
6.2.2 Searle's classification of speech acts
6. 2.3 Indirect speech acts
6.3 Principle of conversation
6.4 Cross-cultural pragmatic failure
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Chapter 7 Language Change
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Phonological changes
7.3 Morphological and syntactic change
7.3.1 Addition of affixes
7.3.2 Loss of affixes
7.3.3 Change of word order
7.3.4 Change in negation rule
7.4 Lexical and semantic change
7.4.1 Addition of new words
7.4.2 Loss of words
7.4.3 Semantic changes
7.5 Some recent trends
7.5.1 Moving towards greater informality
7.5.2 The influence of American English
7.5.3 The influence of science and technology
7.6 The causes of language change
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Chapter 8 Language and Society
8.1 The scope of sociolinguistics
8.1.1 The relatedness between language and society
8.1.2 Speech community and speech variety
8.1.3 Two approaches to sociolinguistic studies
8.2 Varieties of language
8.2.1 Dialectal varieties
8.2.2 Register
8.2.3 Degree of formality
8.3 Standard dialect
8.4 Pidgin and Creole
8.5 Bilingualism and diglossia
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Chapter 9 Language and Culture
9.1 Introduction
Chapter 10 Language Acquisition
Chapter 11 Second Language Acquisition
Chapter 12 Language and the Brain
A Gloccsry in English and Chinese





First, linguistics is descriptive while traditional grammar is prescriptive. A linguist is interested in what is said, not in what he thinks ought to be said. He describes language in all its aspects, but does not prescribe rules of "correctness". He does not believe that there is some absolute standard of correctness concerning language use which linguists or school teachers should view as their duty to maintain. Instead, he would prefer to be an observer and recorder of facts, but not a judge. He might recognize that one type of speech appears to be socially more acceptable than others because of the influence of fashion. But this will not make him think that the socially more acceptable variety can replace all the other varieties, or the old words are always better than the new ones, or vice versa. He will regard the changes in language and language use as the result of a natural and continuous process, not something to be feared.
Second, modem linguistics regards the spoken language as primary, not the written. Traditional grammarians, on the other hand, tended to emphasize, maybe over-emphasize, the importance of the written word, partly because of its permanence. Before the invention of sound recording, it was difficult for people to deal with utterances which existed only for seconds. Then, the traditional classical education was also partly to b
ame. People were encouraged to imitate the "best authors" for language usage. Many of the rules of traditional grammar apply only to the written language; they cannot be made meaningful in terms of the spoken language, without much qualification and addition.



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