作者：(美国)哈里•P•贾德森(Harry Pratt Judson)
1 THE LARKS AND THE FARMER
2 THE GOOD SOLDIER
3 LITTLE KITTY
4 A BIRD'S STORY
5 THE ANT AND THE GRASSHOPPER
8 THE NEW MOON
8 THE ROBINS
9 THE VOICE IN THE WOOD
10 THE STORY OF A LEAF
11 THE WIND AND THE LEAVES
12 THE LITTLE PINE TREE
13 IN A MINUTE
15 GOOD-BYE, PRETTY BUTTERFLY
16 BESSIE AND THE BIRDS
17 ONE GOOD TRICK
18 THE THREE BILLY GOATS GRUFF
19 THE GOOSE AND THE GOLDEN EGGS
20 HOW TO DO IT
21 THE WAY TO HAVE A GOOD GAME
22 A USEFUL ANIMAL
23 THE COW
24 A KIND BROTHER
25 THE CAT, THE MONKEY, AND THE CHESTNUTS
28 BIRD THOUGHTS
27 LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD
28 TWO LITTLE KITTENS
29 JAMES AND HIS ARMY
31 THE CLUCKING HEN
32 A KIND GIRL
33 HABITS OF FLOWERS
34 THE BEE AND THE FLOWER
35 THE DOG AND HIS SHADOW
36 ONLY A SNAIL
37 LITTLE DUCKS
38 THE HARE AND THE TORTOISE
39 BOATS SAIL ON THE RIVERS
40 TOO MANY DOLLS
41 THE LOST DOLL
42 THE SNOW MAN
43 LITTLE WHITE LILY
45 THE WASP AND THE BEE
46 THE SONG OF THE BEE
47 THE THREE BEARS
48 MY SHADOW
49 THE GARDEN SPIDER
50 THE YOUNG ARTIST
51 LITTLE THINGS
52 HALF CHICK
53 WHERE GO THE BOATS?
56 A TALK ABOUT REDCOAT
57 WHO STOLE THE BIRD'S NEST?
58 THE SHOEMAKER AND THE ELVES
59 A SPRING MORNING
60 THE TOWN MOUSE AND THE COUNTRY MOUSE
61 JOHN'S NEW HORSE
62 LADY MOON
63 LITTLE GEORGE WASHINGTON
65 THE MILKMAID
66 THE GOLDEN TOUCH
67 SWEET AND LOW
It is believed that the Graded Literature Readers will commend themselves to thoughtful teachers by their careful grading, their sound methods, and the variety and literary character of their subject matter.
They have been made not only in recognition of the growing discontent with the selections in the older readers, but also with an appreciation of the value of the educational features which many of those readers contained. Their chief points of divergence from other new books, therefore, are their choice of subject matter and their conservatism in method.
A great consideration governing the choice of all the selections has been that they shall interest children. The difficulty of learning to read is minimized when the interest is aroused.
School readers, which supply almost the only reading of many children, should stimulate a taste for good literature and awaken interest in a wide range of subjects.
In the Graded Literature Readers good literature has been presented as early as possible, and the classic tales and fables, to which constant allusion is made in literature and daily life, are largely used.
Nature study has received due attention. The lessons about scientific subjects, though necessarily simple at first, preserve always a strict accuracy.
The careful drawings of plants and animals, and the illustrations in color——many of them photographs from nature——will be attractive to the pupil and helpful in connection with nature study.
No expense has been spared to maintain a high standard in the illustrations, and excellent engravings of masterpieces are given throughout the series with a view to quickening appreciation of the best in art.
These books have been prepared with the hearty sympathy and very practical assistance of many distinguished educators in different parts of the country, including some of the most successful teachers of reading in primary, intermediate, and advanced grades. While it is impossible to give in every case credit where credit is due, mention must be made of the valuable suggestions of Miss M. Adella Pinney, Roger Sherman School, New Haven, Conn., and Miss Florence M. Holbrook, Principal of Forestville School, Chicago, Ill.
The Straw, the Coal, and the Bean
BY THE BROTHERS GRIMM
Jakob Grimm (1785–1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786–1859): German authors. The Brothers Grimm, as they are familiarly called, wrote many learned scientific books, but they are best known to children by their collection of German fairy and folk stories.
1. In a village lived a poor old woman, who had gathered some beans and wanted to cook them. So she made a fire on her hearth, and that it might burn more quickly, she lighted it with a handful of straw.
2. When she was emptying the beans into the pan, one dropped without her observing1 it and lay on the ground beside a straw. Soon afterwards a burning coal from the fire leaped down to the two.
3. Then the straw said: “Dear friends, whence do you come here?”
The coal replied: “I fortunately sprang out of the fire. If I had not escaped by main force my death would have been certain. I should have been burned to ashes.”
4. The bean said: “I, too, have escaped with a whole skin. But if the old woman had got me into the pan, I, like my comrades, should have been made into broth without any mercy.” “And would a better fate have fallen to my lot?” said the straw. “The old woman has destroyed all my brethren1 in fire and smoke; she seized sixty of them at once and took their lives. I luckily slipped through her fingers.”
5. “But what are we to do now?” asked the coal.
“I think,” answered the bean, “that as we have so fortunately escaped death, we should keep together like good companions. Lest a new mischance2 should overtake us here, let us go away to a foreign country.”
6. This plan pleased the two others, and they set out on their way together. Soon, however, they came to a little brook, and, as there was no bridge, they did not know how they were to get over.
At last the straw said: “I will lay myself across, and then you can walk over on me as on a bridge.”
7. The straw, therefore, stretched herself from one bank to the other, and the coal, who was of an impetuous3 nature, tripped forward quite boldly on the newly built bridge. But
when she reached the middle and heard the water rushing beneath her, she was, after all, frightened, and stood still.
8. The straw then began to burn, broke in two pieces, and fell into the stream. The coal slipped after her, hissed when she sank into the water, and breathed her last.
The bean, who had prudently stayed behind on the shore, could not help laughing at these events, and laughed so heartily that she burst.
9. It would have been all over with her also, if, by good fortune, a tailor who was traveling in search of work had not sat down to rest by the brook. Pitying the poor bean, he pulled out his needle and thread and sewed her together. She thanked him prettily, but, as the tailor used black thread, beans since then have a black seam.
Robert Louis Stevenson
1. The famous Scotch author, Robert Louis Stevenson, was born in Edinburgh, November 13, 1850. He was a delicate child with a sweet temper and a happy, unselfish disposition, who bore the burden of ill health bravely in childhood as in later life. In “The Land of Counterpane,” a poem which you may remember, he tells some of the ways in which he amused himself during the idle days in bed.
2. When he was well enough to be up, he invented games for himself and took keen delight in the world of out-door life.
3. His education was carried on in a somewhat irregular fashion. He attended schools in Edinburgh, and studied with private tutors at places to which his parents had gone for the benefit of his health or of their own. He thus became an excellent linguist1, and gained wide knowledge of foreign2 life and manners. He early showed a taste for literature, beginning as a boy the careful choice of language which made him a master of English prose.
4. Stevenson’s father had planned to have him follow the family profession3 of engineering. With this in view he was sent to Edinburgh University in the autumn of 1868. Later he gave up engineering and attended law classes; but law, like engineering, was put aside to enable him to fulfil his strong desire for a literary life.
5. His first stories and essays, published in various magazines, met with favorable notice. In 1878 he published his first book, “An Inland Voyage,” the account of a canoe4 trip with a friend.
6. The mists and east winds of his native Scotland proved too harsh for his delicate lungs, and year after year he found it necessary to spend more and more time away from his Edinburgh home. On one of these journeys in quest5 of health, he came to America, and in “Across the Plains” he describes his journey in an emigrant6 train from New York to San Francisco. It was on this visit to California that he met Mrs. Osbourne, who became his wife in 1880.
7. “Treasure Island,” a stirring tale of adventure, was published in 1883. It was followed by two other boys’ stories, “The Black Arrow” and “Kidnapped.”
8. In 1887 Stevenson and his wife again visited America. They hired a yacht1 and spent two years sailing among the islands of the South Seas, finally visiting Apia in Samoa. Samoa pleased Stevenson, and as the climate suited him, he decided to make his home there. At Vailima, his Samoan home, he spent four happy years with his wife and his mother. Then his health failed, and he died suddenly, December 3, 1894. He was buried, as he had desired, on the summit of a mountain near his home.
9. Besides many novels and volumes of essays, Stevenson was the author of four volumes of poetry. The best known of these is “A Child’s Garden of Verses,” a book of delightful child poems from which the poem “Travel” is taken.
BY DR. JOHN AIKIN
Dr. John Aikin (1747–1822): The author of many scientific and literary works. This selection is from “Evenings at Home,” a volume of stories for children written by Dr. Aikin and his sister, Mrs. Barbauld. A hundred years ago, there were few books written especially for young people, except grammars, histories, and other text-books, and this volume of instructive stories was very popular.
“Ah, ah, papa!” cried Elizabeth, “I have found you out.”
1. One winter evening Captain Compass was sitting by the fireside with his children around him.
“Oh, papa,” said little Jack, “do tell a story about what you have seen in your voyages. We have been reading some wonderful tales of adventure. As you have sailed round and round the world, you must have seen many strange things.”
2. “That I have, my son,” said Captain Compass, “and, if it will interest you, I will tell you some of the curious things I have seen.
3. “Once about this time of the year I was in a country where it was very cold. To keep warm, the people had garments made from an animal’s outer covering which they stripped off his back while he was yet alive. They also wore skins of beasts, these skins being made smooth and soft in some way.
4. “Their homes were made of stones, of earth hardened in the fire, or of the stalks of a large plant which grew in that country. In the walls were holes to let in the light; but to keep out the rain and the cold air these holes were covered with a sort of transparent1 stone, made of melted sand.
5. “They kept their homes warm by means of a queer kind of rock which they had discovered in the earth. This rock, when broken, burned and gave out great heat.”
6. “Dear me!” said Jack, “what wonderful rock! I suppose it was somewhat like flints that give out sparks when we knock them together.”
“I don’t think the flints would burn,” said the Captain;“besides, this was of a darker color.
7. “The food, too, of these people was strange. They ate the flesh of certain animals, roots of plants, and cakes made of powdered seeds. They often put on these cakes a greasy matter which was the product of a large animal.
“They ate, also, the leaves and other parts of a number of plants, some quite raw, others prepared in different ways by the aid of fire.
8. “For drink they liked water in which certain dry leaves had been steeped. I was told that these leaves came from a great distance.
“What astonished me most was the use of a drink so hot that it seemed like liquid fire. I once got a mouthful of it by mistake, taking it for water, and it almost took away my breath. Indeed, people are often killed by it; yet many of them are so foolish that they will give for it anything they have.
9. “In warmer weather these people wore cloth made from a sort of vegetable wool growing in pods upon bushes. Sometimes they covered themselves with a fine glossy1 stuff, which I was told was made out of the webs of worms. Think of the great number of worms required2 to make so large a quantity of stuff as I saw used!
“The women especially wore very queer things. Like most Indian nations, they wore feathers in their headdress.
10. “I was also much surprised to see that they brought up in their houses an animal of the tiger kind, with sharp teeth and claws. In spite of its natural fierceness this animal was played with and caressed by timid women and children.”
11. “I am sure I would not play with it,” said Jack.
“Why, you might get an ugly scratch if you did,” said the Captain. “The speech of these people seems very harsh to a stranger, yet they talk to one another with great ease and quickness.
12. “One of their oddest customs is the way that the men have of greeting the women. Let the weather be what it will, they uncover their heads. If they wish to seem very respectful, they stay uncovered for some time.”
13. “Why, that is like pulling off our hats,” said Jack.
“Ah, ah, papa!” cried Elizabeth, “I have found you out. All this while you have been telling us about our own country and what is done at home.”
14. “But,” said Jack, “we don’t burn rock, nor eat grease and powdered seeds, nor wear skins and worms’ webs, nor play with tigers.”
15. “What is coal but rock?” asked the Captain, “and is not butter grease; and corn, seeds; and leather, skins; and silk, the web of a kind of worm? And may we not as well call a cat an animal of the tiger kind, as a tiger an animal of the cat kind?
16. “If you remember what I have said, you will find with your sister’s help that all the other wonderful things I have told you about are ones we know quite well.
“I meant to show you that to a stranger our common things might seem very wonderful. I also wanted to show you that every day we call a great many things by their names without ever thinking about their nature; so it is really only their names and not the things themselves that we know.”
We wear clothes made from sheep’s _____.
Our shoes are made of the skin of beasts, made smooth and soft; this is called _____
Some houses are built of _____, which are made of earth hardened in the fire.
_____are holes to let in light and air.
In these holes is put _____, which is made of melted sand.
_____is a rock which burns.
We eat _____, _____, and_____ , which are the flesh of animals.
We eat cakes made of the powdered seeds of and _____
We also use for food_____ , _____, and _____, which are the roots of plants.
The leaves of _____are cooked and eaten
_____ grows in pods upon bushes, and is used for making Clothes
_____.is a glossy fabric made out of the webs of worms.
This series of literature readers is edited by the president of the University of Chicago Harry Pratt Judson, as to supply almost the only reading of many children, and stimulate their taste for good literature and awaken interest in a wide range of subjects.
In the Graded Literature Readers good literature has been presented as early as possible, and the classical tales and fables are largely used. Nature study has received due attention. The lessons on scientific subjects, though necessarily simple at first, preserve always a strict accuracy.
These books have been prepared with the hearty sympathy and very practical assistance of many distinguished educators in different part of the United States, including some of the most successful teachers of reading in primary, intermediated, and advanced grades.
We believe that Graded Literature Readers disclose a broader knowledge of literature, better taste and judgment in its selections.
A great consideration governing the choice of all selections has been that they shall interest children. The difficulty of learning to read is to minimized when the interest is aroused. School readers, which supply almost the only reading of many children, should stimulate a taste for good literature and awaken interest in a wide range of subjects.
—Harry Pratt Judson
(The 2nd president of the University of Chicago)