Environmental Neurodevelopment.pdf

Environmental Neurodevelopment.pdf



Environmental Experience and Plasticity of the Developing Brain goes beyond the genetic basis of neurodevelopment. Chapters illuminate the external factors that can dramatically impact the brain early in life and, consequently, the eventual accomplishment of developmental milestones and the construction of adult behavior and personality.

Authored and edited by leaders in this rapidly growing field, Environmental Experience and Plasticity of the Developing Brain not only surveys preexisting literature on the effects of environment versus genetics, but also discusses more recent studies on the impacts of neurodevelopment in terms of maternal stimulation, environmental enrichment and sensory deprivation. The book also includes key examples of environmental impacts on preexisting genetic syndromes leading to developmental disabilities. Focus is also given to the consequences of early adverse experience in primates, as well as neurobiological and behavioral consequences in institutionalized human children and the reversibility of such consequences.

Environmental Experience and Plasticity of the Developing Brain encompasses a broad area of research in the field of developmental neurobiology and offers a unique combination of different examples of environmental factors affecting brain development and behavior. 


1. Environmental enrichment and brain development
Alessandro Sale, Nicoletta Berardi, Lamberto Maffei

1.1. Introduction: critical periods and experience-dependent plasticity in brain circuits

1.2. Optimization of environmental stimulation: environmental enrichment

1.3. Environmental enrichment and visual system development

1.4. Concluding remarks


2. Epigenetic control of visual cortex development and plasticity
Paola Tognini, Elena Putignano, Tommaso Pizzorusso

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Overview of chromatin modifications

2.3. Epigenetics and brain plasticity

2.4. Epigenetic control on visual system development

2.5. Future directions


3. Gene-environment interactions in the aetiology of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders
Mari A. Kondo, Anthony J. Hannan

3.1. How animal models help us study human brain disorders

3.2. Genetic models for complex brain diseases

3.3. Behavioural outcomes from environmental modulation

3.4. Components of environmental enrichment

3.5. Molecular changes in response to environmental modulation

3.6. Environment, bdnf, stress and depression

3.7. Epigenetics and environmental influence

3.8. Overview of rett syndrome

3.9. Genetic sources of phenotypic variation in rett syndrome and other brain disorders

3.10. The functions of mecp2

3.11. Can disease progression in rett syndrome be prevented?

3.12. Regulation of bdnf and crh by mecp2

3.13. Effects of environmental enrichment in mecp2 mutant mice

3.14. Summary


4. Environmental experience and plasticity of the developing brain
R. M. Meredith

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Developmental aspects of ndds

4.3. Brain development and critical periods

4.4. Dysregulation of brain development in ndds: a framework for misregulated timing

4.5. Potential mechanisms underlying critical period dysregulation in ndds

4.6. Corrective strategies for ndds: genetic and pharmacological interventions

4.7. Syndrome-specific molecules or common signalling hubs? Targets for future pharmacotherapeutic interventions

4.8. Dysregulated critical period framework as a unifying hypothesis for prominent ndd theories

4.9. Implications of misregulated critical periods and the future directions



5. Maternal care and dna methylation
Moshe Szyf

5.1. Introduction

5.2. Dna methylation

5.3. Dna methylation and regulation of gene expression

5.4. Reversibility of dna methylation

5.5. Dna methylation changes triggered by differences in maternal care in the nr3c1 gene

5.6. Molecular conduit between experience and dna: signalling cascade leading from maternal care to epigenetic programming

5.7. Reversibility of epigenetic programming by maternal care

5.8. Epigenetic programming by early life experience in humans; rRNA genes are hyper methylated in suicide victims who were abused as children

5.9. The response to early life adversity is broad and involves several gene networks

5.10. System wide responses to maternal deprivation; the impact of rearing differences in non-human primates

5.11. Natural disasters as a model to study the impact of maternal stress on child dna methylation

5.12. Summary


6. Neurobiology and programming capacity of attachment learning to nurturing and abusive caregivers
Tania L Roth, Gordon A Barr, Michael J Lewis, and Regina M Sullivan

6.1. Acknowledgments

6.2. Introduction

6.3. Infant attachment

6.4. Neurobiology of attachment learning

6.5. Neurobiology of abusive attachment learning

6.6. Maternal control of attachment

6.7. Attachment and epigenetic programming

6.8. Functional consequences

6.9. Concluding remarks


7. Early environmental manipulations and long-term effects on brain neurotrophin levels
Francesca Cirulli and Enrico Alleva

7.1. General introduction

7.2. Long-term effects of infantile stimulation on brain plasticity

7.3. Neurotrophins and brain plasticity

7.4. Neurotrophins as transducers of early experiences

7.5. Neurotrophins as transducers of stressful events

7.6. Windows of opportunity: environmental enrichment as a means to achieve a fine-tuning of brain plasticity and of social and emotional behaviour

7.7. Epigenetic changes as one mechanism linking early experiences and adult neurobehavioral profile

7.8. Conclusions


8. Effects of genes and early experience on the development of primate behavior and stress reactivity
Sean P. Coyne and Dario Maestripieri

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Assessment of infant behaviour and stress reactivity

8.3. Influence of naturally occurring variation in maternal style on offspring behaviour and stress reactivity

8.4. Main genetic effects on the development of infant behaviour and stress reactivity

8.5. Serotonin transporter gene (5htt) and its linked polymorphic region (5-httlpr)

8.6. The µ-opioid receptor gene (oprm1)

8.7. Dopamine receptor d4 (drd4) and other reward related genes

8.8. Summary and conclusions


9. Institutional Deprivation and Neurobehavioral Development in Infancy
Jenalee R. Doom & Megan R. Gunnar

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Cognition

9.3. Emotion

9.4. Behavior

9.5. Brain development

9.6. Electrophysiology

9.7. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (hpa) activity

9.8. Genetic moderation & epigenetics

9.9. Evidence for sensitive periods

9.10. Factors modifying post-institutional outcomes

9.11. Comparisons with other forms of adversity

9.12. Individual differences and resilience

9.13. Conclusions



10. Impact of infantile massage on brain development
Andrea Guzzetta and Giovanni Cioni

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Early intervention programs and infant massage

10.3. Infant massage as a model of environmental enrichment

10.4. Summary and conclusions



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