罗素（Bertrand Russell，1872-1970）,was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician,historian, religious skeptic, social reformer,socialist and pacifist. Although he spent themajority of his life in England, he was born in Wales, where he also died.Russell led the British "revolt against idealism"in the early 1900s and is considered one of thefounders of analytic philosophy along with hisprotégé Wittgenstein and his elder Frege. Hewas a prominent anti-war activist, championingfree trade between nations and anti-imperialism.Russell was imprisoned for his pacifist activismduring World War I, campaigned against Adolf Hitler, for nuclear disarmament, criticised Soviettotalitarianism and the United States of America's involvement in the Vietnam War.In 1950, Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought."
CHINA BEFORE THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
CHINA AND THE WESTERN POWERS
JAPAN BEFORE THE RESTORATION
JAPAN AND CHINA BEFORE 1914
JAPAN AND CHINA DURINGTHE WAR
THE WASHINGTON CONFERENCE
PRESENT FORCES AND TENDENCIES
IN THE FAR EAST
CHINESE AND WESTERN
THE CHINESE CHARACTER
HIGHER EDUCATION IN CHINA
INDUSTRIALISM IN CHINA
THE OUTLOOK FOR CHINA
It is interesting to contrast this story with that of the elder Brutus and hissons, upon which we in the West were all brought up.
Chao Ki, expounding the Confucian doctrine, says it is contrary to filial pietyto refuse a lucrative post by which to relieve the indigence of one's agedparents. This form of sin, however, is rare in China as in other countries.
The worst failure of filial piety, however,is to remain without children, sinceancestors are supposed to suffer if they have no descendants to keep up theircult. It is probable that tlus doctrine has made the Chinese more prolific, inwhich case it has had great biological importance. Filial piety is, of course, inno way peculiar to China, but has been universal at a certain stage of culture.
In this respect, as in certain others, what is peculiar to China is the preservationof the old custom after a very high level of civilization had been attained. Theearly Greeks and Romans did not differ from the Chinese in this respect, butas their civilization advanced the family became less and less important.In China, this did not begin to happen until our own day.
Whatever may be said against filial piety carried to excess, it is certainly lessharmful than its Western counterpart, patriotism. Both, of course, err ininculcating duties to a certain portion of mankind to the practical exclusion ofthe rest. But patriotism directs one's loyalty to a fighting unit, which filialpiety does not （except in a very primitive society）. Therefore patriotism leadsmuch more easily to militarism and imperialism. The principal method of advancing the interests of one's nation is homicide; the principal method of advancing the interest of one's family is corruption and intrigue. Thereforefamily feeling is less harmful than patriotism. This view is borne out by thehistory and present condition of China as compared to Europe.