西方哲学史:从苏格拉底到萨特及其后.pdf

西方哲学史:从苏格拉底到萨特及其后.pdf
 

书籍描述

编辑推荐
《西方哲学史:从苏格拉底到萨特及其后(影印第8版)》将旧有版本中的陈旧元素一一剔除,代之以最前沿的学术观点。作者对西方哲学史出色的驾驭功力、亲和的著述方式和地道的语言,这些在影印版中都将保留并呈现。

名人推荐
(本书)对于一般读者来说不失为一部精炼而又明白易晓的哲学史教本,尤其是书中最后部分(即有关20世纪的西方哲学)是过去一般的哲学史教本甚少涉及的,对读者颇为便利。
——何兆武,著名翻译家,思想文化史学者
斯通普夫和菲泽所著《西方哲学史》至今已出第八版,看来颇受欢迎。作者避免了一般哲学写作的弊端,结合时代与当今哲学的发展,利用其对哲学敏锐而深刻的思考,成就了这样一本长达500余页、详尽但不失情趣的哲学读本。
——赵汀阳,中国社会科学院哲学研究所研究员
我曾在2005年出版的该书第七版中译本序中预言:“可以预料,只要作者健在,隔几年就会有一部新的哲学史问世。史家的思想紧紧地与时代的进展平行,这正是哲学史家所努力追求的一种境界。”目前,这一预言已被证实。
——邓晓芒,武汉大学教授

作者简介
作者:(美国)撒穆尔•伊诺克•斯通普夫(SamueI Enoch Stumpf) (美国)詹姆斯•菲泽(James Fieser)

撒穆尔•伊诺克•斯通普夫(Samuel Enoch Stumpf,1918—1998),芝加哥大学哲学博士、哈佛大学福特研究员、牛津大学洛克菲勒研究员。他担任万德比尔特大学哲学系主任有15年之久,并曾出任爱荷华的康奈尔学院的校长。斯通普夫也是万德比尔特大学的法律哲学教授和医学哲学教授,在哲学、医学伦理学和法理学等领域均颇有建树。
詹姆斯•菲泽(James Fieser),普渡大学博士,现任田纳西大学哲学教授。著述有《道德哲学史》(Moral Philosophy through the Ages,2001),与人合著有《哲学入门》(A Historical Introduction to Philosophy,2002)。菲泽还与人合编《世界宗教经典》(Scriptures of the World’s Religions)一书,并创建了《哲学网络百科全书》(Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)。

目录
出版前言 1
中文版序2
第八版译者序3
第七版译者序6
关于作者9
前言10
What is Permanent in Existence?什么东西是持存的? 5
Thales泰勒斯5
Anaximander阿那克西曼德6
Anaximenes阿那克西米尼8
The Mathematical Basis of All Things万物的数学基础9
Pythagoras毕达哥拉斯9
Attempts to Explain Change解释变化的尝试 12
Heraclitus赫拉克利特12
Parmenides巴门尼德15
Zen0芝诺17
Empedocles恩培多克勒19
Anaxagoras阿那克萨戈拉21
The Atomists原子论者22
Atoms and the Void原子和虚空23
Theory of Knowledge and Ethics知识理论和伦理学25
Chapter 2 The Sophists and Socrates智者派与苏格拉底26
The Sophists智者派26
Protagoras普罗泰戈拉28
Gorgias高尔吉亚29
Thrasymachus塞拉西马柯30
Socrates苏格拉底30
Socrates’Life苏格拉底的生平31
Socrates as a Philosopher作为哲学家的苏格拉底32
Socrates’Theory of Knowledge:Intellectual Midwifery
苏格拉底的知识理论:思想的助产术33
Socrates’Moral Thought苏格拉底的道德思想37
Socrates’Trial and Death苏格拉底的审判和死亡38
Chapter 3 Plato 柏拉图41
Plato’s Life柏拉图的生平41
Theory of Knowledge知识理论43
The Cave洞穴43
The Divided Line线段45
Theory of the Forms理念论49
Moral Philosophy道德哲学53
The Concept of the Soul灵魂概念53
The Cause of Evil:Ignorance or Forgetfulness恶的原因:无知或遗忘55
Recovering Lost Morality恢复失去的道德56
Virtue as Fulfillment of Function作为功能之实现的德性57
Political Philosophy政治哲学58
The State as a Giant Person 巨人般的国家 58
The Philosopher—Kin9哲学王60
The Virtues in the State国家中的德性61
The Decline of the Ideal State理想国的衰败62
View of the Cosmos宇宙观64
Chapter 4 Aristotle亚里士多德碣
Aristotle’s Life亚里士多德的生平68
Logic逻辑学70
The Categories and the Starting Point of Reasonin9范畴和推理的起点70
The Syllogism三段论71
Metaphysics形而上学73
The Problem of Metaphysics Defined界定形而上学的问题74
Substance as the Primary Essence ofThings作为事物的首要本质的实体74
Matter and Form质料和形式75
The Process of Change:The Four Causes变化的过程:四因76
Potentiality and Actuality潜能与现实77
The Unmoved Mover不被推动的推动者78
111e Place of Humans:Physics,Biology,and Psychology
人的地位:物理学、生物学和心理学79
Physics物理学79
Biology生物学79
Psychology心理学80
Ethics伦理学82
Types of“Ends” “目的”的类型82
The Function of Human Beings人的功能 83
Happiness as the End作为目的的幸福84
Virtue as the Golden Mean作为中道的德性85
Deliberation and Choice审慎和选择85
Contemplation沉思86
Politics政治学87
Types of States国家类型87
Differences and Inequalities差异与不平等88
Good Govemment and Revolution好的政体和革命88
Philosophy of Art艺术哲学89
第二部分希腊化时期和中世纪的哲学
Chapter 5 Classical Philosophy after Aristotle
亚里士多德以后的古代哲学93
Epicureanism伊壁鸠鲁主义94
Physics and Ethics物理学与伦理学95
God and Death神和死亡95
The Pleasure Principle快乐原则96
Pleasure and Social Justice快乐与社会正义97
Stoicism斯多噶主义97
Wisdom and Control versus Pleasure相对于快乐的智慧和控制98
Stoic Theory of Knowledge斯多噶学派的知识论98
Matter as the Basis of All Reality作为一切实在之基础的物质99
God in Everythin9万物中的神99
Fate and Providence命运和天意100
Human Nature人的本性l00
Ethics and the Human Drama伦理学和人的戏剧101
The Problem of Freedom 自由的问题101
Cosmopolitanism and Justice世界主义和正义102
Skepticism怀疑主义 103
The Search for Mental Peace寻求心灵的安宁103
Evident versus Nonevident Matters明显的事情和不明显的事情104
Plotinus普罗提诺 107
Plotinus’s Life普罗提诺的生平107
Cod as the One作为太一的神l08
The Metaphor of Emanation流溢的隐喻109
Salvation得救112
Chapter 6 Augustine奥古斯丁113
Augustine’s Life奥古斯丁的生平113
……
Part Three EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHY
第三部分近代早期的哲学
Part Four LATE MODERN AND NINETEENTH—CENTURY PHILOSOPHY
第四部分近代晚期和19世纪哲学
Part Five TWENTIETH—CENTURY AND CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHY
第五部分20世纪和当代哲学

序言
这是一部最近出版的较新的西方哲学史。本书全名为《从苏格拉底到萨特及其后的哲学史》。我国读者过去所习见的西方哲学史一般都是从古希腊前苏格拉底的自然哲学家讲起,下迄19 世纪末20 世纪初。本书作者为当代学人,内容则下迄20 世纪末叶。本书的规格仍然是以历来各个哲学家为主,而于各个流派的传承、传播及其影响则涉及不多,所以严格说来仍是一部哲学家的历史,而不是一部哲学本身的历史。这本书也是一般哲学史的通例,不是为异。
凡是写哲学史或思想史的作者,大抵不外有两类。一类为作者本人即哲学家或思想家,有其自己的一套哲学体系或思想体系,就其自己的哲学或思想在指点江山,臧否人物,借以发挥自己的思想理论和见解;而其缺点则是,不能客观全面地阐明历史的真相。文德尔班(Wilhelm Windelband)久负盛名的哲学史著作即是一例。
另一类作者则是史学家,他们考究源流、辨析史实,其重点在于哲学思想的历史发展过程、源流、传播、演变及影响。简单说来,也就是按历史顺序排列的哲学家或思想家的传记,而对于其义理的探究与批判却缺乏深入的洞见、探讨以及启发。但其优点则在于能使读者感到一种大致的整体印象。
本书是沿着后一种路数来展开的。对于一般读者来说仍不失为一部精炼而又明白易晓的哲学史教本,尤其是书中最后部分(即有关20 世纪的西方哲学)是过去一般的哲学史教本甚少涉及的,对读者颇为便利。至于东欧、俄罗斯以及拜占庭、埃及、阿拉伯的哲学则均未提及,更不用说有关印度和中国的哲学了。这样,一部哲学史便缺少了各个不同文化的思想作为参照系。不过这一点乃是西方著作的通例或通病,无需苛求于作者。
读一部哲学史还只是入门,再进一步则还需读各家哲学的原著。
何兆武
2008 年11 月

文摘
版权页:

西方哲学史:从苏格拉底到萨特及其后

Ryle believes that the Ghost in the Machine dogma makes a similar errorand that "a family of radical category-mistakes is the source of the double-lifetheory." Advocates of the dogma hold that a person's feelings, thinking, andpurposive activities cannot be described solely in terms of physics; because ofthis they conclude that mental activity must be described in a set of counterpartidioms. Moreover, because mental conduct differs so from bodily activities,advocates of the dogma hold that the mind has its own metaphysical status,made of a different stuff and having a different structure and its own complexorganization. And so they hold that body and mind are separate fields of causesand effects, with the body being mechanical and the mind nonmechanical.
How did this category-mistake originate? Although Ryle designatesDescartes as the major culprit, the mind-body dualism has a history extendingmuch further back than the seventeenth century. Descartes's specific versionwas inspired by the view that scientific methods are capable of providing a mechanical theory that applies to every occupant in space. From a strictly scientificpoint of view, Descartes was impressed with the mechanical description of nature. However, as a religious and moral person, he was reluctant to agree withthe claim that human nature in its mental aspects differs only in degree of complexity from a machine. Consequently, Descartes and subsequent philosopherswrongly construed mental-conduct words to signify nonmechanical processesand concluded that nonmechanical laws must explain the nonspafial workings of minds. But what this explanation retained was the assumption thatmind, though different from body, is nevertheless a member of the categories of"thing," "stuff, state," "process," "cause," and "effect." Thus, just as the visitor expected Oxford University to be another, extra unit, so Descartes and hisheirs treated minds as additional, though special, centers of the causal process.From these conclusions a host of theoretical difficulties arose. How are the mindand body related? How do they bring about effects in each other? If the mind isgoverned by strict laws analogous to the laws governing the body, does this notimply determinism, in which case such notions as responsibility, choice, merit,and freedom make no sense? Worst of all, only negative terms could be used tospeak of the mind: Minds are not in space, have no motions, are not aspects ofmatter, and are not observable. For these and other reasons Ryle concludes thatthe entire argument of the Ghost in the Machine is "broken-backed".

内容简介
《西方哲学史:从苏格拉底到萨特及其后(第8版)》自1966年初版以来,历经七次修订,成为英语世界最畅销的哲学史入门教材。它紧跟当代哲学和哲学史研究的最新发展,是一部既植根传统又向当代开放的哲学史,堪称当代西方哲学史的主流和典范之作。作者以长短适当的篇幅,把西方两千多年的哲学思想作了清晰的展示。它兼采国内外书写哲学史的写法之长,善于抓住哲学家的主要思想实质进行阐述,态度客观,材料翔实且清晰明了,文笔平正而不失生动,能让读者对西方哲学的总体发展有准确的把握,为读者提供了一个简洁清晰、轻松易懂的哲学读本。
最新第8版将旧有版本中的陈旧元素一一剔除,代之以最前沿的学术观点。作者对西方哲学史出色的驾驭功力、亲和的著述方式和地道的语言,这些在影印版中都将保留并呈现。

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