智慧书.pdf

智慧书.pdf
 

书籍描述

编辑推荐
《智慧书(中英双语典藏本)》自1647年问世以来,深受读者喜爱,历经几百年时光之淘洗而不衰.是人类思想史上最伟大的三部智慧奇书之一。在继《沉思录》、《道德情操论》之后,中央编译出版社推出的又一大师经典。比《君主论》更亲民,比《孙子兵法》更实用,比《道德经》更积极,比《厚黑学》更光明。

媒体推荐
这样的书,仅仅读一遍显然是不够的,它是一本随时都能用上的书,简言之,它是一位终身伴侣。
  ——叔本华
《智慧书》中所昭示的人生经验,直至今日仍能显示出无人能比的智慧与颖悟。
  ——尼采
《智慧书》不可不与朋友、同事分享共赏,其中的箴言、警句鞭辟入里,帮助我们不被敌人、对手蒙于鼓里。                  
  ——克里斯多夫?莫勒
《智慧书》在一定程度上兼有《君王论》的坦率和《孙子兵法》的高品位,它一方面使我们叹服其机智与完美的审慎态度,另一方面又使我们产生向善的心理。
  ——北京大学教授 辜正坤

作者简介
巴尔塔沙·葛拉西安(Baltasar Gracian),17世纪西班牙哲学家、思想家、耶稣会教士。1601年出生于西班牙阿拉贡的贝尔蒙特村。1619年,进入耶稣会见习修行,此后历任军中神父、告解神父、宣教师、教授及行政人员等职。1637年,其处女作《英雄》(El heroe)问世,旋即引起轰动;1640年,讨论领袖素质的《政治家》(El politico)出版;1643年,分析诗歌的《诗之才艺》(Agudeza y arte de ingenio)出版;1647年,巅峰之作《智慧书》(Oraculo)问世。
葛拉西安因其笔锋犀利、讥讽政治,被耶稣会警告,未获批准不得出版作品。1651年,寓言小说《批评家》(El ctitican)问世。为此,他被耶稣会解除了教席,放逐至一乡下小镇,直至1658年终老于此。
葛拉西安一生坎坷,他的思想却对许多欧洲著名道德伦理学家以及德国17-18世纪的宫廷文学和19世纪的哲学产生了重要的影响。

目录
译者序:历经时光淘洗而不衰的处世经典/1
1.万物已近极致/3
Everything is at its acme
2.品性与智慧/3
Character and intellect
3.做事时常留有悬念/3
Keep matters for a time in suspense
4.有识亦应有胆/5
Knowledge and courage
5.让别人依赖你/5
Create a feeling of dependence
6.至善至美的境界/7
A man at his highest point
7.不要比上司更耀眼/9
Avoid victories over superiors
8.不被激情左右/11
To be without passions
9.避免土生土长的缺陷/11
Avoid the faults of your nation
10.财富与名望/13
Fortune and fame
11.择师而交/13
Cultivate those who can teach you
12.自然和人工:原料与加工/15
Nature and art
13.有时三思而行,有时立下决断/15
Act sometimes on second thoughts,
sometimes on first impulse
14.事物本身及做事的方法/19
The thing itself and the way it is done
15.广纳贤人/19
Keep ministering spirits
16.学识和善心/21
Knowledge and good intentions
17.变换你的行为模式/21
Vary the mode of action
18.能力和努力/23
Application and ability
19.事前不要让人期望过高/25
Arouse no exaggerated expectations on entering
20.生逢其时的人/27
A man of the age
21.幸运之道/27
The art of being lucky
22.学以致用/29
A man of knowledge to the point
23.没有瑕疵/29
Be spotless
24.控制自己的幻想/31
Keep the imagination under control
25.善于领会弦外之音/31
Know how to take a hint
26.揪出他人的把柄/33
Find out each man’s thumbscrew
27.求精深重于求广博/33
Prize intensity more than extent
28.超凡脱俗/35
Common in nothing
29.刚直的人/35
A man of rectitude
30.不做毁誉之事/37
Have naught to do with occupations of ill-repute
31.学会趋利避害/39
Select the lucky and avoid the unlucky
32.因善行而闻名/39
Have the reputation of being gracious
33.知道如何逃避/41
Know how to withdraw
34.了解自己的最强项/41
Know your strongest point
35.遇事斟酌,遇要事则更要斟酌/43
Think over things, most over the most important
36.进退之际,了解时运/45
In acting or refraining, weigh your luck
37.准备一些讥诮话,并善加利用/45
Keep a store of sarcasms, and know how to use them
38.急流勇退/47
Leave your luck while winning
39.了解事物成熟的时机,并善加利用/49
Recognize when things are ripe, and then enjoy them
40.获得人们的好感/49
Gain the goodwill of people
41.切勿言过其实/51
Never exaggerate
42.天生为王/53
Born to wommand
43.心随精英,口随大众/53
Think with the few and speak with the many
44.英雄相惜/55
Sympathy with great minds
45.狡猾可以运用,但不能滥用/57
Use, but do not abuse, cunning
46.控制你的反感情绪/57
Master your antipathies
47.避免“为荣誉而决斗”/59
Avoid “affairs of honour”
48.做一个有深度的人至关重要/59
So much depends on being a person of depth
49.明察善断/61
Observation and judgment
50.不失自尊/61
Never lose self-respect
51.选择有道/63
Know how to choose well
52.从不慌乱/63
Never be put out
53.聪明且勤奋/65
Be diligent and intelligent
54.懂得展示你的勇气/65
Know how to show your teeth
55.善于等待/67
Wait
56.随机应变/67
Have presence of mind
57.慢且稳/69
Be slow and Sure
58.恰当展现自己/69
Adapt yourself to your company
59.要有完美的收场/71
Finish off well
60.判断准确/71
A sound judgment
61.卓越之处求卓越/73
To excel in what is excellent
62.善其事必先利其器/73
Use good instruments
63.抢先为上/75
To be the first of the kind is an excellence
64.远离烦恼/77
Avoid worry
65.培养高雅的品味/77
Elevated taste
66.使结局完美/79
See that things end well
67.选择能够获得殊荣的行业/81
Choose an occupation that wins distinction
68.点拨其心智,胜于助其回忆/81
It is better to help with intelligence than with memory
69.不要冲动行事/83
Do not give way to every common impulse
70.学会拒绝/85
Know how to refuse
71.不要左右摇摆/87
Do not vacillate
72.要当机立断/87
Be resolute
73.安然退避/89
Utilize slips
74.与人为善/89
Do not be unsociable
75.选择一位英雄作为偶像/91
Choose a heroic ideal
76.不要总开玩笑/93
Do not always be jesting
77.做人须八面玲珑/93
Be all things to all men
78.做事有道/95
The art of undertaking things
79.轻松快活的个性/95
A genial disposition
80.获取信息要谨慎/97
Take care to get information
81.勇于推陈出新/97
Renew your brilliance
82.凡事无论好与坏,不要走极端/99
Drain nothing to the dregs, neither good nor ill
83.容许自己有无伤大雅之过/99
Allow yourself some venial fault
84.善用对手/101
Make use of your enemies
85.不做无所不知之人/103
Do not be a wild card
86.预防流言蜚语/103
Prevent scandal
87.文明和高雅/105
Culture and elegance
88.举止高贵大方/107
Let your behaviour be fine and noble
89.了解自己/107
Know yourself
90.长寿的秘密/109
The secret of long life
91.对做某事审慎与否若有疑虑,就别着手去做/109
Never set to work at anything if you have
any doubts of its prudence
92.要有超凡的智慧/111
Transcendent wisdom
93.多才多艺/111
Versatility
94.让你的才能高深莫测/113
Keep the extent of your abilities unknown
95.让人们保持对你的期望/113
Keep expectation alive
96.至高无上的辨别力/113
The highest discretion
97.赢得并维护美名/115
Obtain and preserve a reputation
98.掩饰你的意图/115
Write your intentions in cypher
99.本质与表象/117
Reality and appearance
100.做一个清醒的人,智慧的信徒,贤能的臣子/117
Be a man without illusions,
a wise christian, a philosophic courtier
101.世上的一半人嘲笑另一半人,其实他们都是蠢人/119
One half of the world laughs at the other,
and fools are they all
102.天降大福需有大心胸消受/119
Be able to stomach big slices of luck
103.让每人都保有尊严/121
Let each keep up his dignity
104.明确不同工作的要求/123
Know the demands of different occupations
105.勿遭人烦/123
Don't be a bore
106.勿炫耀你的地位/125
Do not parade your position
107.勿自鸣得意/127
Show no self-satisfaction
108.与人同行是成为伟人的捷径/129
The path to greatness is along with others
109.不要吹毛求疵/129
Be not censorious
110.不要坐以待毙/131
Do not wait till you are a sinking sun
111.赢得朋友/131
Have friends
112.博取他人的好感/133
Gain good-will
113.未雨绸缪/135
In prosperity prepare for adversity
114.避免与人相争/135
Never compete
115.习惯熟人的缺点/137
Get used to the failings of your familiars
116.只和可敬之人交往/137
Only act with honourable men
117.决不谈论自己/139
Never talk about yourself
118.要赢得谦恭有礼的名声/139
Acquire the reputation of courtesy
119.避免惹人厌烦/141
Avoid becoming disliked
120.生活讲求实际/143
Live practically
121.不要小题大做/145
Do not make a business of what is no business
122.言行应有威信/145
Distinction in speech and action
123.避免矫揉造作/147
Avoid affectation
124.要被他人想念/147
Get yourself missed
125.不要成为污点记录簿/149
Do not be a black list
126.愚蠢并非做了蠢事,而在于做后不知掩饰/151
Folly consists not in
committing folly, but in not hiding it when committed
127.凡是从容优雅/151
Grace in everything
128.要有高远的志向/153
Highmindedness
129.从不抱怨/153
Never complain
130.要干,且要让人看见/155
Do and be seen doing
131.慷慨大度/157
Nobility of feeling
132.修正自己的判断/157
Revise your judgments
133.宁可同醉,而不独醒/159
Better mad with the rest of the world than wise alone
134.加倍储存你的资源/159
Double your resources
135.不要滋长唱反调的习气/161
Do not nourish the spirit of contradiction
136.抓住事情关键/163
Post yourself in the centre of things
137.圣人自足/163
The sage should be self-sufficing
138.任其自然的艺术/165
The art of letting things alone
139.冷静面对倒霉的日子/165
Recognize unlucky days
140.一眼看到事物好的一面/167
Find the good in a thing at once
141.不要只倾听自己的声音/169
Do not listen to yourself
142.当对手先站在正确的一方时,你不能固执地站在错误的一方/171
Never from obstinacy take the wrong side because your
opponent has anticipated you in taking the right one
143.别为免俗而玩弄诡辩之术/173
Never become paradoxical in order to avoid the trite
144.开始于他人,受用于自己/173
Begin with another's to end with your own
145.藏好你受伤的手指/175
Do not show your wounded finger
146.透过现象看本质/177
Look into the interior of things
147.采纳他人的建议/177
Do not be inaccessible
148.掌握谈话的艺术/179
Have the art of conversation
149.懂得推罪于人/181
Know how to put off ills on others
150.推销得法/181
Know how to get your price for things
151.高瞻远瞩/183
Think beforehand
152.不与令自己黯然失色之人为伍/185
Never have a companion who casts you in the shade
153.不要去填补前人留下的巨大空缺/185
Beware of entering where there is a great gap to be filled
154.不轻易相信,也不轻易喜欢/187
Do not believe, or like, lightly
155.掌控激情的艺术/189
The art of mastering your passions
156.选择你的朋友/189
Select your friends
157.识人别出错/191
Do not make mistakes about character
158.善用朋友/193
Make use of your friends
159.忍受愚蠢/195
Put up with fools
160.说话要谨慎/195
Be careful in speaking
161.认清自身喜爱的缺点/197
Know your pet faults
162.如何战胜对手和诽谤者/197
How to triumph over rivals and detractors
163.决不因同情而卷入他人的不幸/199
Never, from sympathy with the unfortunate,
involve yourself in his fate
164.投石问路/201
Throw straws in the air
165.斗争也要讲体面/201
Wage war honourably
166.分辨善言者与善行者/203
Distinguish the man of words from the man of deeds
167.知道怎样依靠自己/203
Know how to take your own part
168.不要沦为愚蠢的怪物/205
Do not indulge in the eccentricities of folly
169.多加小心,避免万一失手胜过百发百中/207
Be more careful not to miss once
than to hit a hundred times
170.凡事有所保留/207
In all things keep something in reserve
171.不要滥用人情/209
Do not waste influence
172.决不与一无所有者争斗/209
Never contend with a man who has nothing to lose
173.与人相交,不要像玻璃般易碎,朋友间尤其如此/211
Do not be glass in intercourse, still less in friendship
174.不要活在匆忙中/213
Do not live in a hurry
175.做个实在的人/213
A solid man
176.自知或从知者处知/215
Have knowledge, or know those that have knowledge
177.避免与人太亲近/217
Avoid familiarities in intercourse
178.信赖你的内心/217
Trust your heart
179.缄默是才能的标志/219
Reticence is the seal of capacity
180.决不被敌人误导/221
Never be guided by what your enemy has done
……
295.若未奏效,不要邀功/359
Do not affect what you have not effected
296.高贵的品质/361
Noble qualities
297.行动总如处于监视中/361
Always act as if your acts were seen
298.可造就非凡之人的三大要素/363
Three things go to a prodigy
299.让人有饥饿感/363
Leave off hungry
300.总而言之,做一位圣徒/365
In one word, be a saint

序言
在许多欧洲学者眼里,人类思想史上具有永恒价值的处世智慧包含于三大奇书之中:一是马基雅维里的《君王论》,二是孙武的《孙子兵法》,三就是葛拉西安的《智慧书》。《君王论》主要是为那些处心积虑想取得或保有王权的帝王而写;《孙子兵法》则主要为那些运筹于帷幄之中的将帅而写;而《智慧书》呢,却是为每一个人为人处世、安身立命而写。
如果单从处世智慧来看,《智慧书》则是三本奇书中最微妙、最具实用价值的一本。德国大哲学家叔本华曾刻意将《慧智书))译成德文,并盛赞此书“绝对的独一无二”。尼采也赞扬此书在论述道德的奥妙方面,整个欧洲也没有一本书比它更精微、更曲折多姿;他在一则札记中写道:“葛拉西安的人生经验显示出今日无人能比的智慧与颖悟。”
《智慧书》的作者巴尔塔沙·葛拉西安(Baltasar Gracian)是17世纪西班牙思想家、哲学家,也是一位满怀入世热忱的耶稣会教士,他的一生充满了坎坷。葛拉西安于1601年生于西班牙阿拉贡的贝尔蒙特村,1619年进入耶稣会见习修行,此后历任军中神父、告解神父、宣教师、教授及行政人员。

文摘
插图:

智慧书

智慧书

1.万物书局近极致
万物已近极致,为人处世的艺术更是如此。当今若想成就一位智者,花费的工夫比造就希腊七贤还要多;现在要应付一个人,所需的智谋比从前应付整整一个民族还要多。
2.品性与智慧
品性与智慧,是组成人类才能的两个要素。要走向幸福生活,缺少哪一个都将半途而废。仅仅拥有智慧是不够的,还要有好的品性。蠢人的不幸,在于没有适合他的地位、职业、邻居与朋友圈子。
3.做事时常留有悬念
做事时常留有悬念。若你的成功出人意料,则更能受到钦佩。任何事若昭然若揭,都会让人感到索然无味。若不急于公开自己所做之事,就会使人期待。若你地位显赫,将更能引人注目。将任何事都染上一层神秘的色彩,正是神秘引起尊崇。即便是阐明情况,也不要过于直白,就像在日常交往中不会暴露自己真实的想法一样。谨慎地保持沉默是世间智慧之精髓。公开声明的决心从不会获得高的评价,只给他人的品头论足留下口实。若所行之事恰巧以失败收场,你就会遭受双重的打击。若想引人惊奇与注意,就向那些缄默的神灵学习吧。
4.有识京应有胆有识亦应有胆,这是成为伟人的要素。知识与勇气是不朽的,同样可使人不朽。懂得多少,便有多伟大;若你学识渊博,则无事不可为。一个人无知,正如世界没有光明。慧与力量,就像双眼与双手。有识无胆者亦无所成。
5.让别人依赖你
让别人依赖你。神之所以为神,不在于人们装饰其雕像,而在于人们诚心诚意地崇拜它。智者宁愿他人时刻需要自己,而非感激自己。保持他人的希求是智慧的,期望别人的感激是愚蠢的;期盼让人牢记,而感激使人忘却。受人依赖,比受人恭敬更有益。人解了渴之后,往往转身离开井边,橘子一旦榨干,便会被人从金盘子中扔到垃圾筐里。当人们对你的依赖消失,良好的品行和尊敬也会随着消失。努力保持人们对你的渴求之心,且不使其得到完全满足,这是最重要的人生经验之一。此法让你变得不可或缺,甚至连王座上的君主也永远需要你。但是不要做得太过分,以免误入歧途,也不要为了一己之私而让别人陷入病入膏肓的绝境。
6.至善至美的境界
至善至美的境界。我们并非天生完美之人,因此应日求渐进,做到德业兼修,直至尽善尽美,禀赋圆成,成就非凡。完美与否,如何判断?这正是大家所常说的:品味是否纯正,头脑是否清醒,判断是否成熟,意志是否坚定。有些人从来达不到至善的境界,总是有所欠缺;另外一些人则大器晚成。完美的人,言辞中透出智慧,行事谨慎小心,会使贤达之人乐于与之为伍,甚至追随。
7.不要比上司更耀眼
不要比上司更耀眼。所有的成功都会引起嫉恨,若超过上司,更是愚蠢,甚至是致命的。优越者总是引起他人的憎恨,更别说超过位高权重之人。人要善于将自己的优势深藏不露。举个例子,姣好的面容可以用不经意的装束来遮掩。也许有人不在乎你有好的运气或是温良的秉性,但是没人会乐意:尤其是君主你在判断力上超过他,因为优秀的判断力是王者特有的能力,你一定要僭越,便是对其不敬。身为君主,自然希望在判断力这一最高贵之特质上远胜一筹。他们可以允许旁人辅佐,却不允许有人超越;要让他们采纳建议,就要像是帮他们回想起忘掉的东西,而不是指引他们去找其久寻不得之物。天上的星辰教会了我们这种愉快的处世策略:它们是太阳之子,并且与太阳一样光亮,却从不与太阳争辉。
8.不被激情左右
不被激情左右。这是最优秀的头脑才有的品质。这种优良品质使人免受短暂而低俗的冲动影响。没有什么驾驭能高于驾驭自身及自身之冲动:这是一种意志上的胜利。即便激情控制了你的脾气,也不要让它威胁你的地位;如果地位不低,你更需注意。这是避免丑闻的唯一坦途,也是重获荣誉的最短路径。
9.避免土生土长的缺陷
避免土生土长的缺陷。水流之品质受河床土质之好坏的影响,人之品性受出生之气候优劣的影响。有些人会比别人更受故乡的恩泽,因为那里天清气爽。任何国家(即便是最文明的国家)都有其独特的缺陷:正是这些缺陷,让别的国家聊以自慰或是小心防范。纠正自己的缺陷,或甚至隐藏起这些缺陷,是最明智的胜利。你在同胞中鹤立鸡群,就会赢得好的声誉,出人意料的成功总是更受钦佩。其他的缺陷则源自家庭、职位、职业和所处的时代。如果所有这些缺陷都体现在一个人身上,并且没被小心约束,那定会让他成为无法忍受的怿物。

内容简介
《智慧书(中英双语典藏本)》汇集了300则绝妙的格言警句,论及识人观事、慎断是非、修炼自我、防范邪恶等处世智慧和谋略。叔本华将其译为德文,赞誉它“绝对独一无二”;尼采则断言:“在剖析道德方面,整个欧洲没人能比葛拉西安更为慎密、更为精细。”而且,它还与《君王论》、《孙子兵法》一同被欧洲学者视为千百年来人类思想史上具有永恒价值的三大智慧奇书。

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