美国学生经典历史教材:美国历史.pdf

美国学生经典历史教材:美国历史.pdf
 

书籍描述

内容简介
《美国历史(英汉双语版)》是美国哈佛大学著名历史学教授爱德华•钱宁专为美国学生撰写的一本关于美国历史的权威教材,它对此后的美国历史教科书产生了不朽的影响。全书从欧洲人发现美洲开始,重点讲述了1600~1900期间300年的美国历史。作者试图通过《美国历史》“唤起学生对历史的热爱,而不是死记大量轶事”,因为有些轶事没有多大重要性,有的又基于不可靠的资料。《美国历史》全书分15篇,共45章,归纳了485个知识要点,对学生把握全书的脉络与历史线索很有帮助。
《美国历史》采用英汉双语形式出版,中文只是作为内容和阅读形式的一种补充,每章之后配有相应的练习题和教师建议。对国内学生来讲,这套书也是一本很好的英语学习读本。配合英文朗读,对提升英语水平一定更有帮助。

The aim of this book is to tell in a simple and concise form the story of the founding and development of the United States. The study of the history of one's own country is a serious matter,and should be entered upon by the text-book writer, by the teacher, and by the pupil in a serious spirit,even to a greater extent than the study of language or of arithmetic. No effort has been made, therefore,to make out of this text-book a story book. It is a text-book pure and simple, and should be used as a text-book, to be studied diligently by the pupil and expounded carefully by the teacher.

编辑推荐
哈佛大学历史教授爱德华•钱宁为美国学生撰写的历史课本。《美国历史》采用英汉双语形式出版,中文只是作为内容和阅读形式的一种补充,每章之后配有相应的练习题和教师建议。全书分15篇,共45章,485个知识要点和大量练习讨论,对学生把握全书的脉络与历史线索很有帮助。对国内学生来讲,《美国历史》是一本很好的英语学习读本,SAT考试参考用书,配合英文朗读,对提升英语水平一定更有帮助。

作者简介
爱德华•钱宁 (1856-1931),美国著名历史学家,美国殖民与革命史研究专家,1883-1929年任教于哈佛大学,其6卷本《美国历史》1926年获普利策奖。这本《美国历史》著作在数十年内一直成为美国标准的历史研究参考书。
爱德华出生于马萨诸塞州,出生几个月后,其母离世,4岁时便被送至时任哈佛大学医学院系主任的祖父沃尔特•钱宁家,就读于一所私立学校,18岁时进入哈佛学院,大学毕业后继续在哈佛获得历史专业博士学位。1880年,祖父沃尔特去世,留下300美元遗产,爱德华用这笔钱到欧洲游历9个月,后到近东及北非旅行。返回美国后开始为《科学》杂志写作地理文章。1883年,他成为哈佛大学历史系辅导员,并为托雷教授担任助教。
1886年,与爱丽斯•撒切尔结婚,育有两女,从此步入学术的阶梯。1896年,爱德华•钱宁成为哈佛大学副教授,1897年成为教授,讲授殖民史课程。1912年,成为古代史与现代史McLean教授,1929年退休。1905-1925年期间,他开始写作《美国历史》,20年内完成了6卷本的里程牌历史巨著——《美国历史》,同时为美国中学生写作了这部历史教材。

目录
PART I DISCOVERY AND EXPLORATION,1000~1600
发现与探险(1000~1600 年)
CHAPTER I THE EUROPEAN DISCOVERY OF AMERICA
欧洲人发现美洲 / 3
CHAPTER 2 SPANISH AND FRENCH PIONEERS IN THE UNITED STATES
美国的西班牙和法国先驱 / 10
CHAPTER 3 PIONEERS OF ENGLAND
英格兰的开拓者 / 18

PART II COLONIZATION, 1600~1660
殖民时期(1600~1660 年)
CHAPTER 4 FRENCH COLONISTS, MISSIONARIES, AND EXPLORERS
法国殖民者、传教士和探险者 / 27
CHAPTER 5 VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND
弗吉尼亚和马里兰 / 32
CHAPTER 6 NEW ENGLAND
新英格兰 / 40
CHAPTER 7 NEW NETHERLAND AND NEW SWEDEN
新荷兰和新瑞典 / 52

PART III A CENTURY OF COLONIAL HISTORY, 1660~1760
一个世纪的殖民历史(1660~1760 年)
CHAPTER 8 THE COLONIES UNDER CHARLES II
查理二世的殖民统治 / 65
CHAPTER 9 COLONIAL DEVELOPMENT, 1688~1760
殖民地的发展(1688~1760 年) / 77
CHAPTER 10 EXPULSION OF THE FRENCH
驱除法国人 / 84

PART IV COLONIAL UNION, 1760~1774
殖民地联盟(1760~1774 年)
CHAPTER 11 BRITAIN′S COLONIAL SYSTEM
不列颠的殖民地制度 / 101
CHAPTER 12 TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION
无代表权税收 / 105
CHAPTER 13 REVOLUTION IMPENDING
革命的到来 / 118

PART V THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE, 1775~1783
独立战争(1775~1783 年)
CHAPTER 14 BUNKER HILL TO TRENTON
从邦克山到特伦顿 / 135
CHAPTER 15 THE GREAT DECLARATION AND THE FRENCH ALLIANCE
《独立宣言》和法国联盟 / 149
CHAPTER 16 INDEPENDENCE
独 立 / 161

PART VI THE CRITICAL PERIOD, 1783~1789
关键时期(1783~1789 年)
CHAPTER 17 THE CONFEDERATION, 1783~1787
联邦(1783~1787 年) / 179
CHAPTER 18 MAKING OF THE CONSTITUTION, 1787~1789
制定宪法(1787~1789 年) / 189

PART VII THE FEDERALIST SUPREMACY, 1789~1801
联邦党掌权(1789~1801 年)
CHAPTER 19 ORGANIZATION OF THE GOVERNMENT
政府的组建 / 207
CHAPTER 20 RISE OF POLITICAL PARTIES
政治党派的出现 / 221
CHAPTER 21 THE LAST FEDERALIST ADMINISTRATION
最后一个联邦党政府 / 231

PART VIII THE JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLICANS, 1801~1812
杰斐逊代表的共和党人(1801~1812 年)
CHAPTER 22 THE UNITED STATES IN 1800
1800 年的美国 / 247
CHAPTER 23 JEFFERSON′S ADMINISTRATIONS
杰斐逊政府 / 254
CHAPTER 24 CAUSES OF THE WAR OF 1812
1812 年战争的原因 / 264

PART IX WAR AND PEACE, 1812~1829
战争与和平( 1812~1829 年)
CHAPTER 25 THE SECOND WAR OF INDEPENDENCE, 1812~1815
第二次独立战争(1812~1815 年) / 281
CHAPTER 26 THE ERA OF GOOD FEELING, 1815~1824
幸福时代(1815~1824 年) / 296
CHAPTER 27 NEW PARTIES AND NEW POLICIES, 1824~1829
新党派与新政策(1824~1829 年) / 306

PART X THE NATIONAL DEMOCRACY, 1829~1844
国家民主(1829~1844 年)
CHAPTER 28 THE AMERICAN PEOPLE IN 1830
1830 年美国的人 / 321
CHAPTER 29 THE REIGN OF ANDREW JACKSON, 1829~1837
安德鲁• 杰克森的任期(1829~1837 年) / 330
CHAPTER 30 DEMOCRATS AND WHIGS, 1837~1844
民主党与辉格党(1837~1844 年) / 340

PART XI SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES, 1844~1859
领土内的奴隶制(1844~1859 年)
CHAPTER 31 BEGINNING OF THE ANTISLAVERY AGITATION
反奴隶制运动的开始 / 357
CHAPTER 32 THE MEXICAN WAR
墨西哥战争 / 362
CHAPTER 33 THE COMPROMISE OF 1850
1850 年的折中法案 / 372
CHAPTER 34 THE STRUGGLE FOR KANSAS
关于堪萨斯的纷争 / 381

PART XII SECESSION, 1860~1861
分裂(1860~1861 年)
CHAPTER 35 THE UNITED STATES IN 1860
1860 年的美国 / 399
CHAPTER 36 SECESSION, 1860~1861
南部各州脱离联邦(1860~1861 年) / 407

PART XIII THE WAR FOR THE UNION, 1861~1865
统一战争(1861~1865 年)
CHAPTER 37 THE RISING OF THE PEOPLES, 1861
民众的反应(1861 年) / 423
CHAPTER 38 BULL RUN TO MURFREESBORO’, 1861~1862
从布尔• 朗到莫福利保罗(1861~1862 年) / 428
CHAPTER 39 THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
《解放奴隶宣言》 / 442
CHAPTER 40 THE YEAR 1863
1863 年 / 450
CHAPTER 41 THE END OF THE WAR, 1864~1865
战争结束(1864~1865 年) / 458

PART XIV RECONSTRUCTION AND REUNION, 1865~1888
重建联邦(1865~1888 年)
CHAPTER 42 PRESIDENT JOHNSON AND RECONSTRUCTION, 1861~1869
约翰逊的重建计划(1861~1869 年) / 481
CHAPTER 43 FROM GRANT TO CLEVELAND, 1869~1889
从格兰特到克利夫兰(1869~1889 年) / 491

PART XV NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, 1889~1900
国家的发展(1889~1900 年)
CHAPTER 44 CONFUSION IN POLITICS
政治混乱 / 511
CHAPTER 45 THE SPANISH WAR, 1898
西班牙战争(1898 年) / 518

文摘
THE EUROPEAN DISCOVERY OF AMERICA
欧洲人发现美洲
1. Leif Ericson discovers America, 1000.—In our early childhood many of us learned to repeat the lines:—
Columbus sailed the ocean blue
In fourteen hundred, ninety-two.
We thought that he was the first European to visit America. But nearly five hundred years before his time Leif Ericson had discovered the New World.He was a Northman and the son of Eric the Red. Eric had already founded a colony in Greenland, and Leif sailed from Norway to make him a visit. This was in the year 1000. Day after day Leif and his men were tossed about on the sea until they reached an unknown land where they found many grapevines. They called it Vinland or Wineland. They Then sailed northward and reached Greenland in safety. Precisely where Vinland was is not known. But it certainly was part of North America. Leif Ericson, the Northman, was therefore the real discoverer of America.
2. Early European Travelers.—The people of Europe knew more of the lands of Asia than they knew of Vinland. For hundreds of years missionaries, traders, and travelers visited the Far East. They brought back to Europe silks and spices, and ornaments of gold and of silver. They told marvelous tales of rich lands and great princes. One of these travelers was a Venetian named Marco Polo. He told of Cathay or China and of Cipango or Japan. This last country was an island. Its king was so rich that even the floors of his palaces were of pure gold. Suddenly the Turks conquered the lands between Europe
and the golden East. They put an end to this trading and traveling. New ways to India, China, and Japan must be found.
3. Early Portuguese Sailors.—One way to the East seemed to be around the southern end of Africa—if it should turn out that there was a southern end to that Dark Continent. In 1487 Portuguese seamen sailed around the southern end of Africa and, returning home, called that point the Cape of Storms. But the King of Portugal thought that now there was good hope of reaching India by sea. So he changed the name to Cape of Good Hope. Ten years later a brave Portuguese sailor, Vasco da Gama, actually reached India by the Cape of Good Hope, and returned safely to Portugal (1497).
4. Columbus.—Meantime Christopher Columbus, an Italian, had returned from an even more startling voyage. From what he had read, and from what other men had told him, he had come to believe that the earth was round. If this were really true, Cipango and Cathay were west of Europe as well as east of Europe. Columbus also believed that the earth
was very much smaller than it really is, and that Cipango was only three thousand miles west of Spain. For a time people laughed at the idea of sailing westward to Cipango and Cathay. But at length Columbus secured enough money to fit out a little fleet.
5. The Voyage, 1492.—Columbus left Spain in August, 1492, and, refitting at the Canaries, sailed westward into the Sea of Darkness. At ten o’clock in the evening of October 20, 1492, looking out into the night, he saw a light in the distance. The fleet was soon stopped. When day broke, there, sure enough, was land. A boat was lowered, and Columbus, going ashore, took possession of the new land for Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Queen of Aragon and Castile. The natives came to see the discoverers. They were reddish in color and interested Columbus—for were they not inhabitants of the Far East? So he called them Indians.
6. The Indians and the Indies.—These Indians were not at all like those wonderful people of Cathay and Cipango whom Marco Polo had described. Instead of wearing clothes of silk and of gold embroidered satin, these people wore no clothes of any kind. But it was plain enough that the island they had found was not Cipango. It was probably some island off the coast of Cipango, so on Columbus sailed and discovered Cuba. He was certain that Cuba was a part of the mainland of Asia, for the Indians kept saying “Cubanaquan.”
Columbus thought that this was their way of pronouncing Kublai Khan—the name of a mighty eastern ruler. So he sent two messengers with a letter to that powerful monarch. Returning to Spain, Columbus was welcomed as a great admiral. He made three other voyages to America. But he never came within sight of the mainland of the United States.
7. John Cabot, 1497.—While Columbus explored the West Indies, another Italian sailed across the Sea of Darkness farther north. His name was John Cabot, and he sailed with a license from Henry VII of England, the first of the Tudor kings. Setting boldly forth from Bristol, England, he crossed the North Atlantic and reached the coast of America north of Nova Scotia. Like Columbus, he thought that he had found the country of the Grand Khan. Upon his discovery English kings based their claim to the right to colonize North America.
8. The Naming of America.—Many other explorers also visited the new-found lands. Among these was an Italian named Americus Vespucius. Precisely where he went is not clear. But it is clear that he wrote accounts of his voyages, which were printed and read by many persons. In these accounts he said that what we call South America was not a part of Asia. So he named it the New World. Columbus all the time was declaring that the lands he had found were a part of Asia. It was natural, therefore, that people in thinking of the New World should think of Americus Vespucius. Before long some one even suggested that the New World should be named America in his honor. This was done, and when it became certain that the other lands were not parts of Asia, the name America was given to them also until the whole continent came to be called America.
9. Balboa and Magellan, 1513, 1520.—Balboa was a Spaniard who came to San Domingo to seek his fortune. He became a pauper and fled away from those to whom he owed money. After long wanderings he found himself on a high mountain in the center of the Isthmus of Panama. To the southward sparkled the waters of a new sea. He called it the South Sea. Wading into it waist deep, he waved his sword in the air and took possession of it for his royal master, the King of Spain. This was in 1513. Seven years later, in 1520, Magellan, a Portuguese seaman in the service of the Spanish king, sailed through the Straits of Magellan and entered the same great ocean, which he called the Pacific. Thence northward and westward he sailed day after day, week after week, and month after month,
until he reached the Philippine Islands. The natives killed Magellan. But one of his vessels found her way back to Spain around the Cape of Good Hope.

【中文阅读】
1. 列夫• 埃里克森发现美洲(1000 年)——多数人在孩提时代就学会背诵下面的句子:
1492 年,哥伦布航海,海正蓝……
我们认为哥伦布是第一个造访美洲的欧洲人,但是,几乎远在此前500 年,列夫• 埃里克森就发现了这个新世界。列夫是北欧人,他是雷德• 埃里克森的儿子。埃里克森已经在格陵兰岛创建了一块殖民地,列夫从挪威出发开始其航海之旅去探望埃里克森,这一年是1000 年。日复一日,列夫和他的随从在大海中颠簸,后来他们来到了一个不知名的陆地,并发现许多葡萄藤。他们把这块陆地叫做文兰德(Vinland) 或“万兰德”(Wineland),随后他们向北航行安全抵达格陵兰岛。确切地讲,没有人知道文兰德在哪里,但是,它肯定是北美的一部分。因此,北欧人列夫• 埃里克森是美洲的真正发现者。
2. 早期欧洲旅行者——欧洲人对亚洲大陆的了解比他们对文兰德了解要多。数百年来,欧洲的传教士、商人和旅行者不断造访远东,他们带回丝绸、香料和金银饰物,他们讲述着关于富庶大陆和伟大君主的故事。其中一位旅行者是威尼斯人马可• 波罗,他谈到中国和日本。后者是一个岛国,它的国王如此富足,他甚至用纯金铺就宫殿。土耳其人突然征服了位于欧洲和富饶东方之间的土地,他们截断了这条商贸与旅行之路线,因此,必须找到通往印度、中国和日本的新航线。
3. 早期葡萄牙航海者——通往东方的一条道路似乎在非洲南端附近,如果在非洲存在这样一个南端地带的话。1487 年,葡萄牙水手航行到非洲南端附近,他们返回葡萄牙,并把所看到的地方叫做“风暴角”,不过,葡萄牙国王认为从此有了靠海路通往印度的很大希望,因此,他将其名改为“好望角”。10 年后,一位勇敢的葡萄牙航海者达伽马真的通过好望角到达印度,并于1497 年安全返回葡萄牙。
4. 哥伦布——一段时间之后,意大利人克里斯托弗• 哥伦布完成了一次更令人吃惊的航行。哥伦布根据自己所见和其他人所说渐渐认为地球是圆的。如果果真如此,日本和中国既在欧洲的西方也在欧洲的东方。哥伦布还相信地球比人们以为的要小得多,而日本在西班牙的西方,距离西班牙仅三千英里。有一段时间人们嘲笑向西可以航行到达日本和中国这个想法,但是,哥伦布为之精心准备了足够的钱以装备一个小舰队。
5. 1492 年的航行——1492 年8 月,哥伦布离开西班牙,在加纳利补给,向西航行进入“黑暗之海”。1492 年10 月20 日傍晚10 点,他看到远处的一盏灯,舰队迅速停下来,当然,天亮时他们看到了陆地。他们放下一只小船,哥伦布走到海岸上,为西班牙国王费迪南德和王后伊莎贝拉赢得这块新的陆地。陆地上的人过来看这些发现者,他们肤色微红,哥伦布感到不解——他们不是远东的居民吗?因此哥伦布把他们叫做印第安人。
6. 印第安人和印第安人居住区——这些印第安人与马可• 波罗所描述的那些美妙的日本人和中国人根本没有相似之处,他们没有穿丝绸和花缎子这类衣服。很显然,他们已经发现的陆地不是日本,它可能是某个远离日本海岸的岛屿。哥伦布继续前行并发现了古巴,他确信古巴是亚洲大陆的一部分,因为印第安人一致在叫嚷着“古巴坤”,哥伦布认为这是他们称道忽必烈(某个东方威武统治者的名字)的方式,于是他向自己伟大的皇帝写了两封信。回到西班牙,哥伦布被当作海军司令受到欢迎。之后,哥伦布三次航海到美洲,但是,他从来就没有到过今天的美国大陆。
7.约翰•卡伯特(1497 年)——在哥伦布到西印度群岛探险的同时,另一个意大利人穿过黑暗之海北上,他的名字叫约翰• 卡伯特,此人带着英国都铎王朝第一个国王亨利七世签发的通行证航海,他大胆地从英国西部的布里斯托尔海港出发,穿过北大西洋,到达诺瓦斯科夏北部美洲海岸。如哥伦布一样,约翰• 卡伯特认为他发现的是忽必烈的国家,根据约翰• 卡伯特的发现,英国国王宣称自己对北美洲的殖民统治权。
8. 美洲的命名——还有许多探险者也到过新发现的这些大陆,其中就有意大利人阿美利哥• 维斯普奇。他到了哪里,我们并不十分清楚,但是,很显然他写了一些关于航海的日志,日志被印刷出来后,有许多人读过。在这些日志中,阿美利哥• 维斯普奇认为人们所谓的南美洲不是亚洲的一部分,他因此把这个地方命名为“新世界”。哥伦布一直认为自己发现的那些陆地是亚洲的一部分。因此,人们在想起“新世界”时自然会想到阿美利哥• 维斯普奇。之后不久,甚至有人建议应该把这个“新世界”叫做美洲以纪念他。人们接受了这个建议,并且,当确切知道另外一些陆地不是亚洲的构成部分时,人们用美洲来命名这些陆地,这样一直延续到整个大陆被叫做美洲。
9. 巴波亚和麦哲伦(1513 年,1520 年)——巴波亚是一个到圣多明各淘金的西班牙人,他变成一个穷人,并且在债主的催逼下离开了圣多明各,在长途跋涉之后,巴波亚发现自己在巴拿马海峡当中的一座高山上,往南看是一片波涛汹涌的新海洋,他把它叫做南海,并向纵深处跋涉,他向空中挥舞他的宝剑,为他效忠的西班牙国王获得这片新领地。这一年是1513 年。7 年后,1520 年,葡萄牙水手麦哲伦在西班牙国王的支持下穿过麦哲伦海峡进入这一片海洋,他把它叫做太平洋。麦哲伦转而向西、向北航行,日复一日,累周不息,经过数月航行他最终到达菲律宾群岛。岛上的人杀死了麦哲伦,但是,他的一条船绕过好望角逃回了西班牙。

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