Spray Drying Techniques for Food Ingredient Encapsulation.pdf

Spray Drying Techniques for Food Ingredient Encapsulation.pdf



Spray drying is a well-established method for transforming liquid materials into dry powder form. Widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries, this technology produces high quality powders with low moisture content, resulting in a wide range of shelf stable food and other biologically significant products. Encapsulation technology for bioactive compounds has gained momentum in the last few decades and a series of valuable food compounds, namely flavours, carotenoids and microbial cells have been successfully encapsulated using spray drying.

Spray Drying Technique for Food Ingredient Encapsulation provides an insight into the engineering aspects of the spray drying process in relation to the encapsulation of food ingredients, choice of wall materials, and an overview of the various food ingredients encapsulated using spray drying. The book also throws light upon the recent advancements in the field of encapsulation by spray drying, i.e., nanospray dryers for production of nanocapsules and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling.

Addressing the basics of the technology and its applications, the book will be a reference for scientists, engineers and product developers in the industry.


1. Introduction to Spray Drying

1.1. Principle of atomisation

1.2. Classification of atomisers

1.2.1. Rotary atomisers

1.2.2. Pressure nozzle atomisers

1.2.3. Two-fluid nozzle atomizers

1.2.4. Ultrasonic atomisers

1.2.5. Electrohydrodynamic atomisers

1.3. Cyclone separator

1.4. Bag filter

1.5. Electrostatic separator

1.6. Morphology of spray dried particles.

1.6.1. Skin forming morphology with hollow internal structure

1.6.2. Blowhole formation

1.6.3. Agglomerate

1.6.4. Formation of dented structure and presence of small particles within large particles

1.7. Spray-drying process parameters and their influence on product quality

1.7.1. Atomisation parameters Atomisation pressure Feed flow rate Feed viscosity Feed surface tension

1.8. Parameters of spray-air contact and evaporation

1.8.1. Aspirator flow rate (or speed)

1.8.2. Inlet temperature

1.8.3. Outlet temperature

1.8.4. Glass transition temperature

1.8.5. Residence time of particles in spray chamber

1.9. Types of spray dryer

1.9.1. Open cycle spray dryer

1.9.2. Closed cycle spray dryer

1.9.3. Semi-closed cycle spray dryer

1.9.4. Single stage spray dryer

1.9.5. Two stage spray dryer

1.9.6. Short-form

1.9.7. Tall-form

1.10. Applications and advantages of spray drying

2. Introduction to encapsulation of food ingredients

2.1. Encapsulation of food ingredients

2.2. The core and wall for encapsulation

2.3. Encapsulation techniques.

2.3.1. Chemical encapsulation process Coacervation Inclusion complexation Liposome entrapment

2.3.2. Mechanical or physical encapsulation processes Emulsification Spray chilling, spray cooling and fluidized bed drying Freeze drying Extrusion Electrohydrodynamic technique for microencapsulation: Electrospraying and Electrospinning Spray drying

2.4. The lexicon of encapsulation

3. Spray Drying for Encapsulation

3.1. Principle of encapsulation by spray drying

3.2. Process steps and parameters of encapsulation by spray drying

3.2.1. Emulsion formation Rationale of emulsification step Emulsion parameters influencing encapsulation efficiency

3.2.2. Spray drying of emulsion. Atomization of the emulsion and influencing parameters Drying of the emulsion droplets and influencing parameters.

3.3. Food ingredients encapsulated by spray drying

3.3.1. Microorganisms

3.3.2. Flavours

3.3.3. Bioactive food components

4. Selection of wall material for encapsulation by spray drying

4.1. Characteristics of wall materials for encapsulation by spray drying4.1.1. Solubility

4.1.2. Emulsification property

4.1.3. Film forming ability

4.1.4. Viscosity.

4.1.5. Glass transition

4.1.6. Degree of crystallinity

4.2. Approaches to choose wall materials for encapsulation

4.2.1. Estimation of drying kinetics and drying curve analysis for wall material selection Isothermal drying method Estimation of drying kinetics under simulated conditions of spray drying

4.2.2. Estimation of emulsification capacity

4.2.3. Analysis of viscosity and rheological characteristics of wall material dispersion

4.2.4. Determination of thermal properties of wall materials

4.3. Commonly used wall materials for encapsulation of food ingredients by spray drying

4.3.1. Gum Arabic

4.3.2. Maltodextrin

4.3.3. Whey protein

4.3.4. Gelatin

4.3.5. Sodium caseinate

4.3.6. Modified starches

4.3.7. Chitosan

5. Encapsulation of Probiotics by Spray Drying

5.1. Definition of probiotics and significance of probiotics encapsulation5.2. Probiotic characteristics of importance to spray drying encapsulation

5.3. Criteria to decide suitability of wall material for encapsulation of probiotics

5.4. Selection of spray drying process parameters

5.4.1. Effect of atomization on probiotic cell viability

5.4.2. Effect of spray drying process conditions on probiotic cell survival Thermal effect of spray drying process on cell viability Sub-lethal heat treatment Inclusion of thermoprotective excipients Dehydration effect of spray drying process on cell viability Feed formulation effects

5.5. Stability of spray dried probiotic microcapsules to gastric environment

6. Encapsulation of flavours & specialty oils by spray drying

6.1. Selective diffusion theory and mechanisms of volatile retention during spray drying

6.2. Performance parameters of flavour encapsulation by spray drying

6.2.1. Encapsulation efficiency Total oil analysis Surface oil analysis

6.2.2. Lipid oxidation Peroxide value determination Active oxygen determination

6.2.3. Morphology and particle size

6.3. Factors influencing encapsulation of flavours and oils by spray drying

6.3.1. Emulsion related factors Wall material Core. Flavour/oil payload Molecular weight and vapour pressure

6.3.2. Spray drying related factors Atomization factors Inlet and exit air temperature Influence of air temperature on encapsulation efficiency and core retention Influence of air temperature on surface oil and lipid oxidation Influence of air temperature on morphology and particle size Feed temperature

7. Encapsulation of bioactive ingredients by spray drying7.1. Spray drying encapsulation of polyphenols

7.1.1. Polyphenols and their functional properties

7.1.2. Rationale for encapsulation of polyphenols

7.1.3. Influence of core nature on encapsulation efficiency

7.1.4. Influence of wall material selection and spray drying process parameters on polyphenolic core retention

7.2. Spray drying encapsulation of vitamins

7.2.1. The functional benefits of vitamins

7.2.2. Vitamin stability and rationale for encapsulation of vitamins

7.2.3. Influence of wall material and feed composition on vitamin encapsulation

7.2.4. Influence of spray drying parameters on vitamin encapsulation

7.3. Spray drying encapsulation of carotenoids

7.3.1. Carotenoids and their functional significance

7.3.2. Rationale for spray drying encapsulation of carotenoids

7.3.3. Effect of wall material selection and feed composition on encapsulation of carotenoids

7.3.4. Effect of spray drying processing conditions on encapsulation of carotenoids

8. Spray Drying for Nanoencapsulation of Food Components

8.1. Introduction to food nanoparticles and nanoencapsulation

8.2. Nano spray dryer

8.2.1. Operation principle of nano spray dryer Piezo-electric driven vibrating mesh atomization Heating mode, hot air flow pattern and configuration of spray chamber Product separation by electrostatic precipitator

8.3. Nanoencapsulation of food bioactive compounds by nano spray dryer

8.4. Analytical methods to characterize nanoencapsulates in foods

8.4.1. Electron microscopy Scanning electron microscopy Transmission electron microscopy Atomic force microscopy Atmospheric scanning electron microscopy

8.4.2. Quantification of nanoparticles’ size and mass by electron microscopy

9. Functional Properties of Spray dried Encapsulates

9.1. Controlled release of encapsulated bioactive compounds

9.1.1. Controlled release by dissolution

9.1.2. Controlled release by diffusion

9.2. Masking of off-taste by encapsulation

9.3. Improvement in stability of encapsulated bioactive compounds

10. Analysis of Spray Dried Encapsulates

10.1. Analysis of physical characteristics of spray dried encapsulates

10.1.1. Moisture content

10.1.2. Particle size

10.2. Analysis of the efficiency of spray drying encapsulation process

10.2.1. Estimation of encapsulation efficiency Encapsulation efficiency of specialty oils Encapsulation efficiency of vitamins and polyphenolic compounds Encapsulation efficiency of flavours and other volatile compounds Encapsulation efficiency of probiotic cells

10.3. Analysis of the stability of spray dried microencapsulates

10.3.1. Analysis of probiotic cell stability under simulated in vitro gastrointestinal conditions Analysis of oxidative stability for lipophilic core compounds Estimation of peroxide value by spectrophotometry method Rancimat method for estimation of peroxide value Gas chromatography method for analysis of oxidative stability Analysis of the functional properties of spray dried encapsulates Study of core release from microencapsulates Taste masking effects

10.4. Sensory evaluation

11. Modeling Approach for Spray Drying and Encapsulation Applications

11.1. Computational fluid dynamics modeling

11.1.1. Conservation of mass equation

11.1.2. Conservation of momentum equation

11.1.3. Conservation of energy equation

11.2. Modeling of spray drying process – A theoretical perspective

11.2.1. Atomisation Boundary conditions for atomization models

11.2.2. Spray-air contact Reference frames Turbulence models Droplet/particle trajectory Droplet temperature Droplet residence time Particle impact position

11.2.3. Droplet drying and particle formation

11.3. Modeling of core release from encapsulates

12. Synergistic Spray Drying Techniques for Encapsulation

12.1. Spray-Fluidized bed coating for encapsulation

12.1.1. Theory of Fluidization

12.1.2. Fluid bed encapsulation – process steps and influential factors Atomization Droplet-particle interactions Drying of coating material on particle surface Food ingredient applications of spray fluidized bed Coating Challenges associated with spray fluidized bed coating Recent advancements in spray fluidized bed coating

12.2. Spray-Freeze-Drying for Encapsulation

12.2.1. Spray Freezing Spray freezing into vapour (SFV) Spray freezing into vapour over liquid (SFV/L) Spray freezing into liquid (SFL)

12.2.2. Freeze drying Conventional freeze drying Atmospheric freeze drying

12.2.3. Factors affecting encapsulation efficiency of SFD process

13. Industrial Relevance and Commercial Applications of Spray Dried Active Food Encapsulates

13.1. Applications of spray dried encapsulates in food industry

13.1.1. Confectionery industry

13.1.2. Bakery industry

13.1.3. Other product categories

13.2. Cost analysis of the spray drying encapsulated active ingredient

13.3. Major industry players producing spray dried encapsulated food ingredients

13.4. Challenges and future scope of the spray drying encapsulation of food ingredients


当当网购书 京东购书 卓越购书