This bust of Socrates portrays himwith the traditional beard of thephilosopher.His features display thetraditiOn that thiS man.whosethoughts were the most beautiful.was nevertheless of rema rkablyhomely appearance.The battle of Agincourt(1415)wasone of the great battles of the HundredYears’War.
The heavily armoredFrench cavalry mel defeat at lhehands of a much smaller force ofdisciplined English pikemen andIongbowmen.
This image of Henry VIII is amongthe most recognizable from an age of mona rchy that began in the sixteenth century and coincided withthe consoI;dations of nations in western Europe and their expansioninto aII CO rners of the g10be Everywhere small principalities and kingdoms were absorbed by theirlarger and more powerful neighbors,and Europe'S military might was ondisplay as far easl as India and asfar west as Peru.
Though Englandplayed but a smalI part in a centurydominated by Spain and France,even its monarch could believe thathe bestrode lhe world fike a colossus.This cartoon depicts the plightof the French peasants.An oldfa rme r iS bowed down Unde rthe weight of the p riviIegeda ristoc racy and cle rgy whilebirds and rabbits,protected byunfair game laws,eat his crops.

作者:(美国)马克.凯什岚斯基 (美国)帕特里克.吉尔里 (美国)帕特里夏.奥布赖恩

Detailed Contents v
Preface xv
Supplements xxiii
About the Authors xxiv
INTRODUCTION: The Idea of Western Civilization 2
1 The First Civilizations 4
2 Early Greece, 2500-500 B.C.E. 24
3 Classical and Hellenistic Greece, 500-100 B.C.E. 42
4 Early Rome and the Roman Republic, 800-146 B.C.E. 64
5 ImperialRome, 146 B.C.E.-192 C.E. 82
6 The Transformation of the ClassicalWorld, 192-500 104
7 The Classical Legacy in the East: Byzantium and Islam 122
8 The West in the Early Middle Ages, 500-900 146
9 The High Middle Ages, 900-1300 166
10 The Later Middle Ages, 1300-1500 186
11 The Italian Renaissance 206
12 The European Empires 226
13 The Reform of Religion 248
14 Europe at War, 1555-1648 266
15 The Experiences of Life in Early Modern Europe, 1500-1650 282
16 The Royal State in the Seventeenth Century 300
17 Science and Commerce in Early Modern Europe 318
18 The Balance of Power in Eighteenth-Century Europe 338
19 Culture and Society in Eighteenth-Century Europe 358
20 The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era, 1789-1815 376
21 Industrial Europe 394
22 Political Upheavals and Social Transformations, 1815-1850 414
23 State Building and Social Change in Europe, 1850-1871 436
24 The Crisis of European Culture, 1871-1914 452
25 Europe and the World, 1870-1914 470
26 War and Revolution, 1914-1920 490
27 The European Search for Stability, 1920-1939 510
28 Global Conflagration: World War II, 1939-1945 530
29 The Cold War and Postwar Economic Recovery, 1945-1970 550
30 The End of the Cold War and New Global Challenges, 1970 to the Present 572


The West is an idea.It is not visible from space.An astro-naut viewing the blue——and·-white terrestrial sphere can make out the forms of Africa,bounded by the Atlantic,the Indian Ocean,the Red Sea,and the Mediterranean.Australia,the Americas,and even Antarctica are distinct patches of blue-green in the darker waters that surround them.But nothing comparable separates Asia from Europe,East from West.Viewed from 100 miles up,the West itself is invisible.Although astronauts can see the great Eurasian landmass curving around the Northern Hemisphere,the Ural Mountainsmthe theoretical boundary between East and West——appear faint from space.Certainly they are less impressive than the towering Himalayas,the Alps,or even the Caucasus.People,not geology,determined that the Urals should be the arbitrary boundary between Europe and Asia. Even this determination took centuries.Originally,Europe was a name that referred only to central Greece.Gradually,Greeks extended it to include the whole Greek mainland and then the landmass to the north.Later,Roman explorers and soldiers carried Europe north and west to its modern bound-aries.Asia too grew with time.Initially,Asia was only that small portion of what is today Turkey inland from the Aegean Sea.Gradually,as Greek explorers came to know of lands far-ther east,north,and south,they expanded their understand。ing of Asia to include everything east of the Don River to the north and ofthe Red Sea to the south. Western civilization is as much an idea as the West itsel Under the right conditions,astronauts can see the Great Wall of China snaking its way from the edge of the Himalayas to the Yellow Sea.No comparable physical legacy ofthe West is so mas-sire that its details can be discerned from space.Nor are Western achievements rooted forever in one corner of the world.Ⅵ1at we call Western civilization belongs to no particular place.Its lo.cation has changed since the origins of civilization,that is,the cultural and social traditions characteristic of the civitas,or city.Western”cities appeared first outside the”West),in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins in present-day Iraq and Iran,a region山at we today call the Middle East.These areas have never losttheir urban traditions,but in time,other cities in North Africa,Greece,and Italy adapted and expanded this heritage. Until the sixteenth century c…E the western end of the Eurasian landmass was the crucible in which disparate cul.tural and intellectual traditions of the Near East.the Mediterranean,and northern and western Europe were smelted into a new and powerful alloy.Then“the West”ex-panded by establishing colonies overseas and by giving rise tothe“settler societies”of the Americas,Australia and NewZealand,and South Africa.Western technology for harnessing nature,Westerh formsof economic and political organization,Western styles of artand music are for good or ill-一dominant influences inworld civilization.Japan is a leading power in the Western tra.ditions of capitalist commerce and technology.China,themost populous country in the world,adheres to Marxist so.cialist principles——a European political tradition.Millions ofpeople in Africa,Asia,and the Americas follow the religions ofIslam and Christianity,both of which developed fromJudaism in the cradle ofWestern civilization.



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